When bubbles appear around the valve stem and
packing gland nut when a soap solution test is being
made, the packing nut should be tightened or the gland
packings should be replaced.
With the regulator hose disconnected, close the
cylinder valve. When bubbles form at the regulator
hose connection when a soap solution is applied, the
valve seat is leaking. Open and close the valve quickly
several times and allow pressure to blow through
quickly. This procedure may clear the valve seat of dirt
and correct the trouble. If the leak continues, the
cylinder should be returned to the factory for test and
Q27. A self-generating oxygen-breathing apparatus
protects you from what type of atmospheres?
Q28. What is the last step in donning a facepiece?
Q29. Oxygen cylinders are hydrostatically tested how
WATER STORAGE FACILITIES
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify different
types of water storage facilities and their
associated support equipment. Understand
their operation, uses, and maintenance.
The operation of storage facilities in the
distribution system is largely a matter of maintaining
sufficient levels through adequate pumping and
controlling water flow through appropriate valves.
Live storage, where water is constantly
circulating from the supply into the distribution
system, is preferred to noncirculating storage because
the latter depletes the chlorine in the water and allows
tastes and odors to develop. If dead storage is
necessary, the operator must maintain a close watch
on chlorine residuals and the development of odors
and tastes, and report conditions regularly to higher
TYPES OF STORAGE
Facilities for storage of water include open
reservoirs, underground reservoirs, and elevated
storage tanks. Ground storage reservoirs may be the
same or similar to those shown in figure 8-12. Three
types of elevated storage tanks, which you may find at
naval activities, are pictured in figure 8-13. You may
also see standpipes, like the one shown in figure 8-14,
used at some activities. Standpipes are, in effect,
ground level storage tanks. The distinguishing
characteristic of a standpipe is its relatively small
diameter and extra height to provide head pressure.
Under no conditions should the amount of stored water
be reduced to a point below that necessary for fire
fighting. Daily records maintained by the operator help
ensure against such a condition.
Pneumatic water tanks are usually found in use at
smaller installations. They consist of a pressure vessel
partly filled with water, and a compressor unit that
supplies air pressure to produce the desired water
pressure. Pneumatic tanks may be within buildings, on
outside surface locations, or underground. While the
operation of these units is usually automatic, the
operator is responsible for the effective operating of
pressure equipment. The manufacturers instructions
should be consulted for methods of starting, stopping,
and operating this pressure equipment.
MAINTENANCE OF STORAGE
Here are the elements in the maintenance of
storage facilities: the construction materials- concrete
or steel; and the location of the tank-ground level,
belowground, or elevated.
All tanks have foundations of concrete, wood, or
steel. Each material has its own maintenance
Concrete foundations should be inspected
semiannually for settlement, cracks, spalling, and
exposed reinforcing. When deterioration has set in, the
foundation should be repaired with a mixture of 1 part
cement to 1 part sand.
Wood foundations and pads should be inspected
for split members, rot, termite infestation, and for
direct soil contact of untreated wood. Any repairs
necessary to remove the undesirable condition should
Maintenance procedures for steel foundations are
similar to those given later in this chapter for elevated
Concrete Storage Tanks
Concrete storage tanks may be either prestressed
or nonstressed design. There is little difference in the
maintenance procedures, which depend mainly on the
location of the tank-aboveground or belowground.