Ammonia cylinders do not have fusible plugs
because no fusible ammonia-resistant material
is available. This presents an acute hazard
because an ammonia cylinder filled to the legal
limit becomes completely liquid at 145°F, and
higher temperature results in a buildup of
hydrostatic pressure. Cylinders are tested at
700 psi under Interstate Commerce
Test for leaks in ammonia gas piping with a
bottle of diluted muriatic acid. White fumes
form as with chlorine.
Ammonia solution or aqua ammonia can be
stored indefinitely, but ammonia gas is created at
about 80°F if the container is open. Store it in a
cool place and keep the container tightly
plugged. Dilute with cool water to 15 percent
ammonia content before feeding. Keep the room
housing the feeder well ventilated.
Precautions in storing and handling chlorine also
apply to sulfur dioxide (SO,). Leaks are located with a
bottle of ammonia water.
Chlorination equipment can be classified by
type, depending on what factor?
What type of chlorinator, in most applications, is
used as emergency equipment?
When deciding on a location for chlorination
equipment, what factor should be the primary
What chemical solution is used to detect chlorine
If a leak develops on a chlorine cylinder that can
not be stopped, you should take what action?
WATER TREATMENT QUALITY
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify material,
equipment, and procedures required to
perform water treatment control effectively.
Frequent chemical analyses and bacteriological
examinations of raw and treated water are required to
determine and control treatment to ensure a safe,
potable water. Chemical analyses will determine
proper water treatment and the safety of the water
in respect to chemical content. Bacteriological
examinations will determine the necessity for
disinfection, as well as the safety of the water,
following treatment in terms of bacteria content.
You may be called upon to collect samples of
water for chemical analysis and bacteriological
examination. You may also have to make various types
of treatment control tests. (See appendix I). This
information will aid you in performing these duties.
Safety precautions to be observed by personnel
engaged in laboratory work are also covered.
The collection of samples for testing for quality
control and safety is an important function, because,
unless the water sample is representative and
uncontaminated, test results will not indicate the actual
condition of the water supply. Sample containers
should be of materials that will not contaminate the
sample and, before use, should be cleaned thoroughly
with a detergent and freshwater rinse to remove all
surface dirt. Chemically resistant glass is a suitable
material for all sample containers, and polyethylene
may be used for samples for chemical analyses. The
size of the sample container used will depend upon the
amount of water needed for a test.
To make certain that representative, uncon-
taminated samples are obtained, you must observe
normal precautions against accidental contamination.
Sample containers and caps should always be rinsed
well with the water to be tested. Direct hand contact
with the mouth of the container, or with the cap, is to
be avoided. Take samples with a minimum of
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS SAMPLES
When collecting samples for chemical analysis,
you will find a gallon of water usually enough to
determine the mineral content. To obtain accurate test
results, flush the sampling lines thoroughly. The
bottles should be rinsed out several times with the
water to be collected. Procedures for obtaining
samples from water supplies for chemical analysis are
given below. These procedures should be carefully
To obtain a representative sample from a well,
pump the well until the normal drawdown is reached.
Rinse the chemically cleaned sample container and cap