Quantcast Clutch Operation

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Application  of  pressure  at  the  inner  section  of  the diaphragm will cause the outer rim to move away from the flywheel and draw the pressure plate away from the clutch disc, disengaging the clutch. Clutch Disc The clutch disc, also called friction lining, consists of a splined hub and a round metal plate covered with friction  material  (lining).  The  splines  in  the  center  of the clutch disc mesh with the splines on the input shaft of the manual transmission. This makes the input shaft and disc turn together. However, the disc is free to slide back and forth on the shaft. Clutch disc torsion springs, also termed damping springs,  absorb  some  of  the  vibration  and  shock produced  by  clutch  engagement.  They  are  small  coil springs  located  between  the  clutch  disc  splined  hub and  the  friction  disc  assembly.  When  the  clutch  is engaged,  the  pressure  plate  jams  the  stationary  disc against   the   spinning   flywheel.   The   torsion   springs compress  and  soften,  as  the  disc  first  begins  to  turn with the flywheel. Clutch   disc  facing   springs,  also   called   the cushioning   springs,   are   flat   metal   springs   located under the friction lining of the disc. These springs have a  slight  wave  or  curve,  allowing  the  lining  to  flex inward  slightly  during  initial  engagement.  This  also allows for smooth engagement. The clutch disc friction material, also called disc lining  or  facing,  is  made  of  heat-resistant  asbestos, cotton   fibers,   and   copper   wires   woven   or   molded together. Grooves are cut into the friction material to aid  cooling  and  release  of  the  clutch  disc.  Rivets  are used to bond the friction material to both sides of the metal body of the disc. Flywheel The   flywheel   is   the   mounting   surface   for   the clutch.  The  pressure  plate  bolts  to  the  flywheel  face. The  clutch  disc  is  clamped  and  held  against  the flywheel by the spring action of the pressure plate. The face of the flywheel is precision machined to a smooth surface.  The  face  of  the  flywheel  that  touches  the clutch disc is made of iron. Even if the flywheel were aluminum, the face is iron because it wears well and dissipates heat better. Pilot  Bearing The pilot bearing or bushing is pressed into the end of the crankshaft to support the end of the transmission input shaft. The pilot bearing is a solid bronze bushing, but it also may be a roller or ball bearing. The end of the transmission input shaft has a small journal machined on its end. This journal slides inside the  pilot  bearing.  The  pilot  bearing  prevents  the transmission  shaft  and  clutch  disc  from  wobbling  up and down when the clutch is released. It also assists the input shaft center the disc on the flywheel. CLUTCH  OPERATION When  the  operator  presses  the  clutch  pedal,  the clutch  release  mechanism  pulls  or  pushes  on  the  clutch release  lever  or  fork  (fig.  4-8).  The  fork  moves  the release  bearing  into  the  center  of  the  pressure  plate, causing the pressure plate to pull away from the clutch disc releasing the disc from the flywheel. The engine crankshaft can then turn without turning the clutch disc and transmission input shaft. When  the  operator  releases  the  clutch  pedal,  spring pressure  inside  the  pressure  plate  pushes  forward  on the   clutch   disc   (fig.   4-8).   This   action   locks   the Figure 4-8.—Clutch operation. 4-6

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