STARTER RELAYDevice that uses a small
current flow from the ignition switch to control a
larger current flow to the starter solenoid.
STARTER SOLENOIDA high current relay that
energizes the starter motor.
STARTING HEADLIGHT TESTStarting
conducted with the headlights turned on to provide
a load on the battery.
STARTING SYSTEMElectric motor and other
components used to rotate the engine until it starts.
STATIC IMBALANCELack of balance that
causes a wheel to vibrate up and down as it rolls.
STATORThe stationary magnetic field in a
generator. Also, component of a torque converter
that improves oil circulation and thus, torque.
STATOR TESTOhmmeter check for open and
shorted windings in the stator.
STEERING AXIS INCLINATIONAngle formed
by the inward tilt of the ball joints, kingpin, or
STEERING COLUMNAssembly consisting of the
steering wheel, steering shaft, ignition key
mechanism, and associated parts.
STEERING GEARBOXGear assembly that turns
rotary motion into linear (straight line) left-right
STEERING KNUCKLEComponent that provides
support for the wheel spindle or bearings
surrounding an axle.
the steering gearbox to the steering knuckles.
STEERING SHAFTComponent that transfers
turning motion from the steering wheel to the
STEERING SYSTEMThe components that allow
the operator to change direction of a vehicle.
STEERING WHEEL PLAYExcessive movement
of the steering wheel without causing any front-
STIFF CLUTCH PEDALA condition caused by
binding or other restriction in the clutch
mechanism, making the pedal hard to depress.
combining shock absorber, coil spring, and upper
damper unit. It replaces the upper control arm.
absorber unit on a MacPherson strut.
STRUT RODRod that fastens to the control arm
and frame to keep the control arm properly
SUSPENSION SYSTEMComponents that let the
wheels move up and down without body
SWAY BARA stabilizer that keeps the vehicle body
from leaning excessively in turns.
SYNCHRONIZER Assembly of hub, sleeve, and
other components that locks the selected output
gear to the output shaft to transmit power. It
permits meshing of gears with grinding.
TERMINALSThe positive and negative posts or
threaded connectors on a battery.
THROW-OUT BEARINGBearing that decreases
friction between the clutch fork and pressure plate.
TIE RODConnectors between rack ends and
TIMING ADVANCEMaking the spark plug fire
sooner in the compression stroke.
mounted on a vehicle to provide pneumatically
cushioned contact and traction with the road.
TIRE BEADWire ring encased in rubber that helps
hold the tire sidewall against the rim.
TIRE IMPACT DAMAGEPunctures, cuts, or
tears caused by running over debris in the road.
TIRE MARKINGSInformation shown on the
sidewall to indicate inflation pressure, load-
carrying ability, size, and other data.
TIRE PLYLayer of fabric or other material that
forms the carcass or body of the tire.
wheels periodically to even out wear.
TIRE WEAR ANGLEUsually, a reference to
camber because tilting the wheels puts more load
on one side of the tire tread than on the other side.
TIRE WEAR PATTERNAreas of tread that are
worn off, which can provide information on causes
TOEDegree to which opposing wheels are on
converging or diverging lines (not parallel). Also,
the narrow part of a gear tooth.