When compressing any suspension
system spring, be extremely careful to
position the spring compressor properly.. If
the spring were to pop out of the compressor,
serious injuries or death could result.
With the coil spring and upper damper unit
removed, you can now remove the shock cartridge. A
new shock cartridge can be installed in the strut outer
housing to restore the strut to perfect condition. Some
manufacturers recommend that the strut shock
absorber be rebuilt once the strut shock absorber is
repaired or replaced. The strut can be reassembled and
installed in reverse order of disassembly,.
For exact procedures for the removal,
repair, and installation of a strut assembly,
refer to the manufacturers service manual.
Springs require very little periodic service. Leaf
spring service usually involves bushing replacement.
Torsion bars require adjustment and coil springs
require no periodic service.
Spring service requirements can be found in the
service manual of the vehicle you are working on.
Spring fatigue (weakening) can occur after
prolonged service. The fatigue lowers the height of the
vehicle, allowing the body to settle toward the axles.
This settling or sagging changes the position of the
control arms, resulting in misalignment of the wheels.
This condition also affects the ride and appearance of
To check spring condition or torsion bar
adjustment, measure CURB HEIGHT (distance from a
point on the vehicle to the ground). Place the vehicle on
a level surface. Then measure from a service manual
specified point on the frame, body. or suspension down
to the shop floor. Compare the measurement to the
specifications in the service manual. If the curb height
is too low (measurement too small). replace the
fatigued springs or adjust the torsion bar.
For instructions on the removal and
installation of springs. refer to the manu-
facturers service manual.
The vehicle should also be at CURB WEIGHT
when checking spring condition and curb height. Curb
weight is generally the total weight of the vehicle with
a full tank of fuel and no passengers or cargo. Also,
make sure nothing is in the passenger compartment
that could possibly increase curb weight. Curb weight
is given in pounds or kilograms.
REVIEW 2 QUESTIONS
What component of the suspension system
prevents the control arm from swinging to the
front or rear of the vehicle?
In the suspension system, what is the function of
the stabilizer bar?
At what location on the control am is the ball
What is the most common type of shock absorber
used on modern vehicles?
On a vehicle that uses struts on the front, the
struts replace what suspension component?
What term is used to describe the stiffness or
tension of a spring?
The radial play of a ball joint can be checked
by moving the wheel straight up and down.
What tool is required to remove the coil spring
form the strut?
Learning Objective: Identify the major components
of a steering system. Explain the operating principles
of steering systems. Describe the differences between
the linkage and rack and pinion type steering.
Describe the operation of power steering. Describe
service and repair procedures for manual and rack and
pinion type steering mechanisms. Explain the service
procedures for servicing power steering belts, hoses,
The steering system allows the operator to guide
the vehicle along the road and turn left or right as
desired. The system includes the steering wheel, which
the operator controls, the steering mechanism, which
changes the rotary motion of the steering wheel into
straight-line motion, and the steering linkage. Most
systems were manual until a few years ago. Then
power steering became popular. It is now installed in
most vehicles manufactured today. The steering