Steering axis inclination is NOT adjustable. It is
designed into the suspension of the vehicle. If the angle
is not correct, then the suspension system should be
checked for damaged or worn parts. Replace the parts
to correct the problem.
Toe-Out On Turns
Toe-out on turns, also known as turning radius
angle, is the amount the front wheels toe-out when
turning corners. As the vehicle goes around a turn, the
inside tire must travel in a smaller radius circle than the
outside tire. To accomplish this, the steering arms are
designed to angle several degrees inside of the parallel
position. The exact amount depends on the tread and
wheelbase of the vehicle and on the arrangement of the
steering control linkage. Toe-out on turns is NOT an
adjustable angle. If the angle is incorrect, it is an
indication of damaged steering components.
Figure 8-52 shows toe-out on turns. Note how each
front wheel turns a different number of degrees. This
prevents tire scrubbing and squeal by keeping the tires
rolling in the right direction on corners.
Tracking (fig. 8-53) is the ability of the vehicle to
maintain a right angle between the center line of the
vehicle and both front and rear axles or spindles. (The
rear of the vehicle should follow the front wheels.)
With improper tracking, the vehicle rear tires do NOT
follow the tracks of the front tires. This causes the
vehicle body or frame to actually shift partially
sideways when moving down the road. Poor tracking
will increase tire wear, lower fuel economy, and upset
Improper tracking has many causes, such as
shifted or broken leaf springs, bent or broken rear axle
mounts, bent frame, bent steering linkage, or a
misadjusted front end alignment.
WHEEL ALIGNMENT TOOLS AND
The most basic types of equipment for wheel
alignment are the turning radius gauge, the
caster-camber gauge, and the tram gauge. These are
Figure 8-52.Toe-out on turns.