Learning Objective: Identify the principles and theory of heating and the procedures required for installing, operating, maintaining, troubleshooting, and repairing warm-air heating and hot-water heating systems and associated peripheral equipment.
Heat is one of the prime necessities of life. It is as essential as food, clothing, and shelter. You can have a very good shelter, but you still need heat to be comfortable in it. By studying this chapter, you will start to gain knowledge of what you will be required to know to become efficient in the Utilitiesman (UT) field.
Learning Objective: Understand the basic principles and theory of heat, heat measurement, and heat transfer.
Long after people had advanced to the stage of house building, heating methods had not improved much. For centuries fires for heating and lighting were contained in braziers or confined to an unused corner of a room. The smoke was supposed to escape through a hole left in the roof of the building during construction. Of course, a considerable amount of rain and snow entered the room during bad weather. During the twelfth century, however, the people in the northern part of Europe started using crude fireplaces and flues to replace the brazier and hole-in-the-roof method of heating. Some of these rudimentary heating systems still exist in France.
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the round, hollow stone chimneys began to be used. At the end of the fourteenth century, people were using a number of fireplaces in their homes and grouping the chimneys together in a vertical, rectangular mass of masonry with decorative effect. By the end of the Italian renaissance period, chimneys were in common use.
During colonial days in America, the fireplace chimneys were a large masonry mass projected through the center of the roof or were an important feature of the gable end walls. This general trend is often followed in architecture today because central heating, required in places where fires are required 5 or 6 months of the year, makes the chimney an important feature of a heating plant. There are heating installations, however, that do not make use of the masonry chimney and have substituted an inconspicuous metal smoke pipe. Other types of heating, such as electrical heating, require no chimney. Methods and equipment used for heating the places we live and work have progressed quickly in the last 100 years. This quick advance is due to our understanding of the principles and theory of heat, which in earlier times was not yet understood.
Heat is a form of energy that is known for its effect. Heat can be produced or generated by the combustion of fuels, by friction, by chemical action, and by the resistance offered to the flow of electricity in a circuit. However, the particular form of generated heat with which the heating specialist will be dealing is produced by combustion. Generated heat is obtained by burning common types of fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas.
To operate a heating plant efficiently, you must be familiar with the measurement of heat and how this heat is transferred from the plant to the space being heated. The first part of this section is devoted to measuring temperature; the second part is concerned with the transfer of heat from the plant to the space being heated.
Measurements of temperature and pressure, which are obtained continuously, are very important factors in the operation of a heating plant. The degree of correctness of these measurements directly affects the safety, the efficiency, and the reliability of the operation of the heating plant. Although heat and temperature have a direct relationship, there is also a distinction between them. For example, a burning match develops a much higher temperature than a steam radiator, but the match does not give off enoughContinue Reading