Figure 7-11. - Heating cycle.
supply air, which is distributed throughout the controlled space. This temperature change removes moisture from the air and forms condensate, which must be piped away. The compressor suction pressure draws the cool vapor back into the compressor where the temperature and pressure are greatly increased. This completes the cooling refrigerant cycle. A graphic presentation of the nine steps of the cycle is shown in figure 7-12.
Heat pumps operating at temperatures below 45F accumulate frost or ice on the outdoor coil. The relative humidity and ambient temperature affect the degree of accumulation. This ice buildup restricts the airflow through the outdoor coil, which consequently affects the system operating pressures. The defrost control detects this restriction and switches the unit into a defrost mode to melt the ice.
The reversing valve is energized and the machine temporarily goes into the cooling cycle where hot refrigerant flows to the outdoor coil. The outdoor fan stops at the same time, thus allowing the discharge temperature to increase rapidly to shorten the length of the defrost cycle. If there is supplemental heat, a defrost relay activates it to offset the cooling released by the indoor coil.
As the outside temperature drops, the heat pump runs for longer periods until it eventually operates continually to satisfy the thermostat. The system "balance point" is when the heat pump capacity exactly matches the heating loss. The balance point varies between homes, depending on actual heat loss and the heat pump capacity. However, the balance point usually ranges between 15F and 40F. Either electric heat or fossil fuels provide the auxiliary heat.
Conventional heat pump applications use electric heaters downstream from the indoor coil. This design prevents damaging head pressures when the heat pump and auxiliary heat run simultaneously. The indoor coil can only be installed downstream from the auxiliary heat if a "fuelmaster" control system is used. This control package uses a two-stage heat thermostat with the first stage controlling heat pump operation and the second stage controlling furnace operation.
Water chillers (figs. 7-13 and 7-14) are used in air conditioning for large tonnage capacities and for central refrigeration plants serving a number of zones, each with its individual air-cooling and air-circulatingContinue Reading