Figure 4-41. - Vertical-rotary burner of the vaporizing or wall flame type.
Horizontal Rotary Type. - The horizontal rotary type was originally designed for industrial use; however, sizes are available for domestic use. It has a wider range of fuel-burning capacity than the high-pressure gun type and can accommodate heavier grades of fuel. Figure 4-42 shows this type of burner.
The major parts of the burner are the housing, fan, motor, fuel tube, and rotating atomizing cup. The atomizing cup and fan are driven at the same speed by a directly connected electric motor. Oil is fed through the fuel tube to the inner surface of the atomizing cup. The oil spreads over the surface of the cup, which turns at 3,450 revolutions per minute (rpm). It then flows to the edge of the cup where it is thrown off. The whirling motion and the resulting centrifugal force separates the oil into fine particles, as it leaves the cup. Primary air supplied by the fan is thrown in around the outer edge of the rotating cup and given a whirling motion in the direction opposite that of the oil. The streams of air and oil collide and thoroughly mix, as they enter the combustion chamber.
OIL BURNER CONTROLS. - The purpose of oil-burner controls is to provide automatic, safe, and convenient operation of the oil burner. The system is designed to maintain the desired room temperature, to
Figure 4-42. - A horizontal-rotary oil burner.
start the burner as required, and to ignite the fuel to initiate combustion. However, in case trouble arises during operation, the burner must be stopped and further operation prevented until the trouble has been corrected.
Oil-burner controls are essentially the same as stoker or gas controls. The only difference is that the oil burner has, in addition, two ignition electrodes and a primary or safety control. A diagram of a typical forced warm-air control system is shown in figure 4-43.
Primary Control. - The burner primary control is electrically connected between the thermostat and the burner, as shown in figure 4-43, and it performs several functions. The primary control closes the motor and ignition circuits when the thermostat calls for more heat. It breaks the motor circuit and stops the burner when the motor first starts if the fuel fails to ignite or if the flame goes out. The control prevents starting of the burner in case of electrical failure until all safety devices are in the normal starting position.
An interior view of a primary control is shown in figure 4-44. This control device is also equipped with a high-temperature limit control. This control shuts down the heating plant whenever the temperature of the furnace becomes excessive. For example, if the thermostat is exposed to a blast of cold air for a long period of time, the heating plant could run long enough to become overheated to the point of severe damage or external fire if it was not for this high-temperature limit control.Continue Reading