Figure 4-74. - Typical high-temperature hot-water circulation pumps.
Figure 4-75. - A typical cascade heater spray nozzle head.
The steam in the space in the expansion tank provides the pressure or cushion for the system. The pressure maintained is that of the saturated steam. The water in the lower portion of the tank will be approximately saturation (steam or vaporization) temperature corresponding to this pressure. The water to be used in the HTHW heating system is drawn from the lower part of the expansion tank, mixed with the system return water, and circulated throughout the system. The mixing is necessary to prevent cavitation (steam flashing) at the pump suction.
Here are some conditions that are typical of the saturated-steam cushion design. The expansion tank, either integral or separate, is a part of the HTHW system. The entire amount of hot water flowing in the heating system passes through the expansion tank and exposes the tank to maximum system heat and any form of contamination which, in turn, subjects the expansion tank to thermal stresses and corrosion. There are explosion hazards typical of a steam boiler in the system, and good water-level control is important in maintaining proper operating conditions. Load variations, causing supply pressure changes, create flashing of saturated liquid in the system and produce water hammer.Continue Reading