The transfer of heat is the next problem to consider after the heat has been produced. It must be moved to the space where it is to be used. Heat always flows from a warmer to a cooler substance; consequently, there must be a temperature difference before heat can flow. Naturally, the greater the temperature difference, the faster the heat flow. Two objects that have different temperatures, when placed together, tend to equalize their temperature. Heat travels in heating systems from one place to another by three different methods. All three of these methods are used in most heating systems. They are discussed in the paragraphs that follow
Conduction is the flow of heat from one part of a substance to another part of the same substance or from one substance to another when they are in direct contact.
When one end of a stove poker is held in a flame, the other end will soon be too hot to hold. This indicates that the heat is being conducted, or transferred, from one end of the poker to the other end. Such a transfer of heat is called conduction. Conduction is used to transfer heat through the walls of a stove, furnace, or radiator so that the warmth can be used for heating. Some materials do not conduct heat as well as others. For example, if a piece of wood had been used instead of the poker, the end of the wood away from the fire would have remained cool. Those materials that offer considerable resistance to heat flow are referred to as insulators or poor conductors.
Convection is the transfer of heat by means of mediums, such as water, air, and steam. When air is heated, it expands, becomes lighter in weight, and rises. The cooler air, which is heavier, then flows in to replace the warm air. Thus a convection current is set up. Water, when heated, acts in the same way as air. The water next to the heating surface becomes warmer, lighter, and rises. This action allows the cooler water to flow in next to the heating surface and become heated. Convection is a very important factor in a heating system. It is this force, developed by heating the medium, which circulates that medium to the space to be heated.
Radiated heat is transferred by heat waves, similar to radio waves. Heat waves do not warm the air through which they pass, but they must be absorbed by some substance to produce heat. For example, when you stand in the shade of a tree, you feel cool because the leaves and limbs are absorbing the heat waves before they reach you.
When heat waves strike an object, some are reflected, some may pass through, and the object absorbs the rest. Polished metals are the best reflectors known; therefore, they are a poor absorber of heat. A poor absorber is also a good radiator. Rough metal absorbs heat more readily than a highly polished metal, and it also loses heat faster by radiation.
The color of a substance also affects its absorbing power. A black surface absorbs heat faster than a white one. That is why light-colored clothes are cooler in summer than are dark-colored clothes.
Q1. Heat can be produced or generated by what methods?
Q2. What two types of measurements directly affect the safety, efficiency, and reliability of heat plant operations?
Q3. Temperature is the measurement of what?
Q4. Convert 82 degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius.
Q5. Heat travels in heating systems by what three methods?
Learning Objective: Understand the types and characteristics of combustible gases and fuel oils used in heating systems.
If electricity and coal are disregarded, the fuels most commonly used with heating equipment are either gas or petroleum. Next, we will take a brief look at the types and characteristics of combustible gases and fuel oils used for heating.
Gaseous fuels are usually classified according to their source that, in turn, determines their chemical composition. The heat valve (Btu per cubic foot) varies with the types of gas and determines the quantityContinue Reading