flooded or sprayed over the distributing deck and flows by gravity to the water-collecting basin.
A completely open space is required for the natural draft tower since its performance depends on existing air currents. Ordinarily, a roof is an excellent location. Louvers must be placed on all sides of a natural draft tower to reduce drift loss.
Important design considerations are the wind velocity and the height of the tower. A wind velocity of 3-miles per hour is generally used for a design of natural draft cooling towers. The natural draft cooling tower was once the standard design for cooling condenser water in refrigeration systems up to about 75 tons. It is now rarely selected unless low initial cost and minimum power requirements are primary considerations. The drift loss and space requirements are much greater than for other cooling tower designs.
An induced draft cooling tower is provided with a top-mounted fan that induces atmospheric air to flow up through the tower, as warm water falls downward. An induced draft tower may have only spray nozzles for water backup, or it may be filled with various slat and deck arrangements. There are several types of induced draft cooling towers.
In a counterflow induced draft tower (fig. 7-21, C), a top-mounted fan induces air to enter through the bottom of the tower and to flow vertically upward as the water cascades down through the tower. The counterflow tower is particularly well adapted to a restricted space as the discharge air is directed vertically upward, and if equipped with a inlet on each side, requires only minimum clearance for air intake area. The primary breakup of water may be either by pressure spray or by gravity from pressure-filled flumes.
A parallel-flow induced draft tower (fig. 7-21, A) operates the same way as a counter-flow tower, except the top-mounted fan pulls the air in through the top of the tower and pushes it out the bottom. The airflow goes in the same direction as the water.
Comparing counterflow and parallel-flow induced draft towers of equal capacity, the parallel-flow tower is somewhat wider but the height is much less. Cooling towers must be braced against the wind. From a structural standpoint, therefore, it is much easier to design a parallel-flow than a counterflow tower, as the low silhouette of the parallel-flow type offers much less resistance to the force of the winds.
Mechanical equipment for counterflow and parallel-flow towers is mounted on top of the tower and is readily accessible for inspection and maintenance. The water-distributing systems are completely open on top of the tower and can be inspected during operation. This makes it possible to adjust the float valves and clean stopped-up nozzles while the towers are operating.
The cross-flow induced draft tower (fig. 7-21, B) is a modified version of the parallel-flow induced draft tower. The fan in a cross-flow cooling tower draws air through a single horizontal opening at one end and discharges the air at the opposite end.
The cooling tower is a packaged tower that is inexpensive to manufacture and is extremely popular for small installations. As a packaged cooling tower
Figure 7-21. - Types of induced fan cooling towers.Continue Reading