and condensed on the outer surfaces of the tubes (fig. 6-21).
The condenser is constructed with a tube sheet brazed to each end of a shell. Copper-nickel tubes are inserted through drilled openings in the tube sheet and are expanded or rolled into the tube sheet to make a gastight seal. Headers, or water boxes, are bolted to the tube sheet to complete the waterside of the condenser. Zinc-wasting bars are installed in the water boxes to minimize electrolytic corrosion of the condenser parts.
A purge connection with a valve is at the topside of the condenser shell to allow manual release of any accumulated air in the refrigerant circuit.
The capacity of the water-cooled condenser is affected by the temperature of the water, quantity of water circulated, and the temperature of the refrigerant gas. The capacity of the condenser varies whenever the temperature difference between the refrigerant gas and the water is changed. An increased temperature difference or greater flow of water increases the capacity of the condenser. The use of colder water can cause the temperature difference to increase.
EVAPORATIVE CONDENSERS. - An evaporative condenser operates on the principle that heat can be removed from condensing coils by spraying them with water or letting water drip onto them and then forcing air through the coils by a fan.
This evaporation of the water cools the 'coils and condenses the refrigerant within.
A liquid receiver as shown at position (5) on figure 6-14, serves to accumulate the reserve liquid refrigerant, to provide a storage for off-peak operation, and to permit pumping down of the system. The receiver also serves as a seal against the entrance of gaseous refrigerant into the liquid line. When stop valves are provided at each side of the receiver for confinement of the liquid refrigerant, a pressure relief valve is generally installed between the valves in the receiver and condenser equalizing line to protect the receiver against any excessive hydraulic pressure being built up.
The evaporator is a bank or coil of tubing placed inside the refrigeration space. The refrigerant is at a low-pressure and low-temperature liquid, as it enters the evaporator.
As the refrigerant circulates through the evaporator tubes, it absorbs its heat of vaporization from the surrounding space and substances. The absorption of this heat causes the refrigerant to boil. As the temperature of the surrounding space (and
Figure 6-21. - Water-cooled condenser.Continue Reading