Q45. When inspecting hermetic compressors, you freezing point of water. As a result, ice can form in the should look for what type of problems?
Learning Objective: Understand basic maintenance of motors and methods of electrical troubleshooting of motors.
Troubles with the electrical motors used to drive the compressors of mechanical refrigeration systems fall into two classes - mechanical and electrical.
Some compressors are belt-driven from the electrical motor. For proper operation, both the belt tension and pulley alignment adjustments must be made. Belt tension should be adjusted so a l-pound force on the center of the belt, either up or down, does not depress it more than one-half inch. To adjust the alignment, loosen the setscrew on the motor pulley after tension adjustment is made. Be sure the pulley turns freely on the shaft; add a little oil if necessary. Turn the flywheel forward and backward several times. When it is correctly aligned, the pulley does not move inward or outward on the motor shaft. Tighten the setscrew holding the pulley to the shaft before starting the motor.
Compressors may also be driven directly by a mechanical coupling between the motor and compressor shafts. Be sure the two shafts are positioned so they form a straight line with each other. The coupling on direct drive units should be realigned after repair or replacement. Clamp a dial indicator to the motor half coupling with its pointer against the outer edge of the compressor half coupling. Rotate the motor shaft, and observe any fluctuations of the indicator. Move the motor or compressor until the indicator is stationary when revolving the shaft one full turn. Secure the hold-down bolts and then recheck.
When liquid refrigerant that contains moisture vaporizes, the moisture separates from the vapor. Because the vaporization of the refrigerant causes a cooling effect, the water that has separated can freeze. Most of the expansion and vaporization of the refrigerant occurs in the evaporator. However, a small amount of the liquid refrigerant vaporizes in the expansion valve, and the valve is cooled below the expansion valve and interfere with its operation. If the needle in the valve freezes in a slightly off-seat position, the valve cannot permit the passage of enough refrigerant. If the needle freezes in a position far from the seat, the valve feeds too much refrigerant. In either case, precautions must be observed to assure a moisture-free system.
A dehydrator is filled with a chemical known as a desiccant, which absorbs moisture from the refrigerant passing through the dehydrator. Dehydrators are installed in the liquid line to absorb moisture in the system after the original installation. An arrow on the dehydrator indicates the direction of flow. Desiccants are granular and are composed of silica gel, activated alumina, or calcium sulfate. Do not use calcium chloride or chemicals that form a nonfreezing solution. These solutions may react with moisture to form undesirable substances, such as gums, sludges, or waxes. Follow the manufacturer's instructions as to limitations of dehydrators, as well as operation, recharging, replacing, and servicing.
In sealed units, loose copper tubing is usually detected by the sound of rattling or metallic vibration. Bending the tubing carefully to the position of least vibration usually eliminates the defect. Do not touch it against other tubing or parts at a point of free movement, and do not change the tubing pitch or the tubing diameter by careless bending.
In open units, lengths of tubing must be well supported by conduit straps or other devices attached to walls, ceilings, or fixtures. Use friction tape pads to protect the copper tubing from the metal of the strap. When two tubes are together in a parallel position, wrapping and binding them together with tape can prevent vibration. When two lines are placed in contact for heat exchange, they should be soldered to prevent rattling and to permit better heat transfer.
When hinges must be replaced because of lack of lubrication or other reasons, the use of exact duplicates is preferable. Loose hinge pins must be securely braided. When thrust bearings are provided, they are held in place by a pin.
The latch or catch is usually adjusted for proper gasket compression. Shims or spacers may be addedContinue Reading