boilers you will be assigned to operate. For specific
operating instructions, consult the manufacturers
manual for the boiler concerned.
During normal operation of boilers, the operators
have two major responsibilities. First is to maintain
proper water level at all times. If the water level is too
low, tubes may overheat, blister, and rupture. If water
level is too high, carry-over of water to the superheater
tubes may damage the superheater elements and the
turbine. The second is to prevent loss of ignition when
burning fuel is in suspension. Maintain safe and
efficient combustion conditions in the furnace and
correct fuel-air ratios.
Establish definite intervals for blowing down the
boiler, depending on the type of operation and
chemical analysis of the boiler water. During regular
operation, never blow down economizers or
water-cooled furnace walls. Blowdown valves on this
type of equipment serve only as drain valves.
Blowdown should be at reduced or moderate
rates of steam for low point drains or blowdown
valves. When the water glass is not in full view of the
operator blowing down a boiler, another operator
should be temporarily assigned to observe the water
glass and signal the operator handing the valves. For
control of water conditions when working, use
continuous blowdown to maintain the proper
concentration at all times and to prevent blowing
down large quantities of water while the boiler is
operating at a high capacity.
1. Flue-gas temperature
a. Keep the temperature low.
b. Temperature should be about 150 degrees
higher than temperature of steam produced.
2. Flue-gas analysis
a. Take periodically.
b. Maintain proper CO;! level for fuel used.
a. Should be long and lazy.
b. Must not enter the tubes.
c. Not dark and smoky.
d. Have a light brown haze from stack, except
e. When the fuel is oil, have a yellow flame with
dark or almost smoky tips.
Boiler Makeup Water
a. Usually 0.03-0.06 inch of water.
Use only properly treated water for makeup, and
maintain the boiler water conditions as specified in
water treatment instructions. Make an accurate water
analysis at specified intervals. Carefully control the
blowdown and the addition of treatment chemicals to
meet the manufacturer's specifications.
b. Check the manufacturers recommendations.
5. Makeup feed
a. Maintain low rate.
b. Avoid excessive boiler blowdown.
Remove soot from hoppers and pits at definitely
established intervals, as necessary.
a. Ensure boiler and lines are well insulated.
7. Water treatment
a. Carry out prescribed treatment of boiler water.
Establish definite intervals for observing and
recording the readings on all important instruments
and controls. Be sure you obtain accurate readings-and
see that the readings are recorded properly on the log
sheet or other required record.
To help ensure efficient operation of the boiler,
operators should ensure that proper operating checks
are done during boiler operations. Operating checks, as
shown in table E, appendix II, apply to most, if not all
Keys to efficient boiler operation and performance
are as follows: