Wear goggles with dark lenses, Number 1.5 to 3 shade, and suitable fireproof face shields when working near or looking through furnace doors of boilers in operation.
When firing a cold boiler, be sure that the air vents are open on the boiler proper and that the drains are open on the superheater; keep these open until steam is liberated from the openings. Superheater vents must remain open until the boiler is on the line.
Be sure gas-fired and oil-fired boilers, whether manual or automatic, are cleared of combustible gases after each false start.
All semiautomatic (multiburner) boilers and all fully automatic boilers should be equipped with a manually activated switch for pilot ignition and a control device to prove the pilot flame is on before the main fuel valve is opened. DO NOT USE A HAND TORCH TO LIGHT OFF A BOILER. If a hand torch is applied to a firebox filled with vaporized oil, a severe boiler explosion is likely to occur.
Prevent overheating of boilers equipped with superheaters by. firing at a slow rate during the warm-up period and by allowing a small amount of steam to flow through the superheater. When taking over a watch, blow the water gauges and note the return of the water in the glass. Be certain of the water level at all times. Do NOT be misled by a dirt marking on the gauge that may look like the surface of the water. Do NOT depend entirely upon automatic alarm devices and automatic feedwater regulators.
If the water goes out of sight in the bottom of the gauge glass, kill the fire with the quickest means available; immediately close the steam stop valve, and allow the boiler to cool slowly; then, drain the boiler completely and open it for inspection. DO NOT FEED COLD WATER TO A BOILER THAT HAS HAD LOW WATER UNTIL THE BOILER HAS COOLED.
Check the water on steaming boilers by try cocks at least once each watch and before connecting a boiler to the line.
Check safety valves often to be sure they will pop at the correct pressure, as marked on the nameplate. Do NOT break the seal of a safety valve or change its adjustment, unless such action has been authorized. NEVER weight pop valves, relief valves, and so on, to increase the recommended steam pressure for which the boiler is approved.
Do not use oil from a tank in which a lot of water is mixed with oil unless a high suction connection is provided. When an atomizer sputters, shift the suction to the standby tank or another storage tank. A sputtering atomizer indicates water in the oil.
Reduce the fouling of oil heaters by using as few heaters as possible. Recirculate the oil through the used heaters for a short time after securing the burners. Maintain the prescribed fuel-oil temperature; do NOT exceed it.
If a large steam leak occurs in a boiler, shut off the burners, continue to feed water until the fire is out, close the steam stop valve, ease the safety valves, clear the furnace of gases, close the registers, and cool the boiler slowly.
Do NOT tighten a nut, bolt, or pipe thread, nor strike any part, nor attempt other adjustments to parts while the boiler is under steam or air pressure.
Take care to prevent lubricating oil, soap, or other foreign substances from getting into the boiler. Condensate from cleaning vats should be drained to waste and not returned to the boiler.
Close the furnace openings as soon as all fires have been put out and the furnace has been cleared of gases.
At shore installations, the handles on pull chains to boiler water-gauge cocks and water-gauge glass stop valves should be painted the following colors:
|Opening water-gauge glass stop valves||WHITE|
|Closing water-gauge glass stop valves||RED|
|Top gauge cock||YELLOW|
|Center gauge cock||GREEN|
|Bottom gauge cock||BLUE|
Do NOT use water to put out an oil fire in the furnace.
When fires are banked, make certain the draft is enough to carry off flammable gas accumulations.
The following lists contain a number of actions to which you should ALWAYS be alert and a number of actions you should NEVER perform.
Always study every conceivable emergency and know exactly what action to take.Continue Reading