Wear goggles with dark lenses, Number 1.5 to 3
shade, and suitable fireproof face shields when working
near or looking through furnace doors of boilers in
When firing a cold boiler, be sure that the air
vents are open on the boiler proper and that the drains
are open on the superheater; keep these open until steam
is liberated from the openings. Superheater vents must
remain open until the boiler is on the line.
Be sure gas-fired and oil-fired boilers, whether
manual or automatic, are cleared of combustible gases
after each false start.
All semiautomatic (multiburner) boilers and all
fully automatic boilers should be equipped with a
manually activated switch for pilot ignition and a
control device to prove the pilot flame is on before the
main fuel valve is opened. DO NOT USE A HAND
TORCH TO LIGHT OFF A BOILER. If a hand torch is
applied to a firebox filled with vaporized oil, a severe
boiler explosion is likely to occur.
Prevent overheating of boilers equipped with
superheaters by. firing at a slow rate during the
warm-up period and by allowing a small amount of
steam to flow through the superheater.
When taking over a watch, blow the water gauges
and note the return of the water in the glass. Be certain
of the water level at all times. Do NOT be misled by a
dirt marking on the gauge that may look like the
surface of the water. Do NOT depend entirely upon
automatic alarm devices and automatic feedwater
If the water goes out of sight in the bottom of the
gauge glass, kill the fire with the quickest means
available; immediately close the steam stop valve, and
allow the boiler to cool slowly; then, drain the boiler
completely and open it for inspection. DO NOT FEED
COLD WATER TO A BOILER THAT HAS HAD
LOW WATER UNTIL THE BOILER HAS
Check safety valves often to be sure they will pop
at the correct pressure, as marked on the nameplate. Do
NOT break the seal of a safety valve or change its
adjustment, unless such action has been authorized.
NEVER weight pop valves, relief valves, and so on, to
increase the recommended steam pressure for which
the boiler is approved.
Check the water on steaming boilers by try cocks at
least once each watch and before connecting a boiler to
Do not use oil from a tank in which a lot of water is
mixed with oil unless a high suction connection is
provided. When an atomizer sputters, shift the suction
to the standby tank or another storage tank. A
sputtering atomizer indicates water in the oil.
Reduce the fouling of oil heaters by using as few
heaters as possible. Recirculate the oil through the
used heaters for a short time after securing the burners.
Maintain the prescribed fuel-oil temperature; do NOT
If a large steam leak occurs in a boiler, shut off the
burners, continue to feed water until the fire is out,
close the steam stop valve, ease the safety valves, clear
the furnace of gases, close the registers, and cool the
Do NOT tighten a nut, bolt, or pipe thread, nor
strike any part, nor attempt other adjustments to parts
while the boiler is under steam or air pressure.
Take care to prevent lubricating oil, soap, or other
foreign substances from getting into the boiler.
Condensate from cleaning vats should be drained to
waste and not returned to the boiler.
Close the furnace openings as soon as all fires have
been put out and the furnace has been cleared of gases.
At shore installations, the handles on pull chains to
boiler water-gauge cocks and water-gauge glass stop
valves should be painted the following colors:
Opening water-gauge glass stop valves
Closing water-gauge glass stop valves
Top gauge cock
Center gauge cock
Bottom gauge cock
Do NOT use water to put out an oil fire in the
When fires are banked, make certain the draft is
enough to carry off flammable gas accumulations.
The following lists contain a number of actions to
which you should ALWAYS be alert and a number of
actions you should NEVER perform.
know exactly what action to take.
Always study every conceivable emergency and