characteristic is used in refrigeration. The heat of the air, of the lining of the refrigerator, and of the food to be preserved is transferred to a colder substance, called the refrigerant.
Three methods by which heat may be transferred from a warmer substance to a colder substance are conduction, convection, and radiation. These principles are explained in chapter 4 of this TRAMAN.
SPECIFIC HEAT is the ratio between the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 pound of any substance 1&F, as compared to the quantity of heat required to change 1 pound of water 1F. Specific heat is equal to the number of Btu required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of a substance 1o F. For example, the specific heat of milk is .92, which means that 92 Btu will be needed to raise 100 pounds of milk 1o F. The specific heat of water is 1, by adoption as a standard, and specific heat of another substance (solid, liquid, or gas) is determined experimentally by comparing it to water. Specific heat also expresses the heat-holding capacity of a substance compared to that of water.
A key RULE to remember is that .5 Btu of heat is required to raise 1 pound of ice 1o F when the temperature is below 32F; and .5 Btu of heat is required to raise 1 pound of steam 1F above the temperature of 212F.
Heat that is added to, or subtracted from, a substance that changes its temperature but not its physical state is called SENSIBLE HEAT. It is the heat that can be indicated on a thermometer. This is the heat human senses also can react to, at least within certain ranges. For example, if a person put their finger into a cup of water, the senses readily tell that person whether it is cold, cool, tepid, hot, or very hot. Sensible heat is applied to a solid, a liquid, or a gas/vapor as indicated on a thermometer. The term sensible heat does not apply to the process of conversion from one physical state to another.
LATENT HEAT, or hidden heat, is the term used for the heat absorbed or given off by a substance while it is changing its physical state. When this occurs, the heat given off or absorbed does NOT cause a temperature change in the substance. In other words, sensible heat is the term for heat that affects the temperature of things; latent heat is the term for heat that affects the physical state of things.
To understand the concept of latent heat, you must realize that many substances may exist as solids, as liquids, or as gases, depending primarily upon the temperatures and pressure to which they are subjected. To change a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas, ADD HEAT; to change a gas to a liquid or a liquid to a solid, REMOVE HEAT. Suppose you take an uncovered pan of cold water and put it over a burner. The sensible heat of the water increases and so does the temperature. As you continue adding heat to the water in the pan, the temperature of the water continues to rise until it reaches 212F. What is happening? The water is now absorbing its latent heat and is changing from a liquid to a vapor. The heat required to change a liquid to a gas (or, the heat that must be removed from a gas to condense it to a liquid) without any change in temperature is known as the LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION.
Now suppose you take another pan of cold water and put it in a place where the temperature is below 32F. The water gradually loses heat to its surroundings, and the temperature of the water drops to 32F until all the water has changed to ice. While the water is changing to ice, however, it is still losing heat to its surroundings. The heat that must be removed from a substance to change it from a liquid to a solid (or, the heat which must be added to a solid to change it to a liquid) without change in temperature is called the LATENT HEAT OF FUSION. Note the amount of heat required to cause a change of state (or the amount of heat given off when a substance changes its state) varies according to the pressure under which the process takes place. Figure 6-2 shows the relationship between sensible heat and latent heat for one substance - water at atmospheric pressure. To raise the temperature of 1 pound of ice from 0F to 32F, you must add 16 Btu. To change the pound of ice at 32F to a pound of water at 32F, you add 144 Btu (latent heat of fusion). There is no change in temperature while the ice is melting. After the ice is melted, however, the temperature of the water is raised when more heat is applied. When 180 Btu are added, the water boils. To change a pound of water at 212F to a pound of steam at 212F, you must add 970 Btu (latent heat of vaporization). After the water is converted to steam at 212F, the application of additional heat causes a rise in the temperature of the steam. When you add 44 BtuContinue Reading