Counterclockwise rotation unseats the valve and opens the system to refrigerant flow (midposition). Systematic checks are performed with a manifold gauge set with the service valve in midposition. Further counterclockwise rotation of the valve stem seats the rear face of the valve. This position opens the system to the flow of refrigerant but shuts off refrigerant to the test connector. The service valves are used for observing of operating pressures; isolating the compressor for repair or replacement; and discharging, evacuating, and charging the system.
Compressors used in automotive air-conditioning systems generally are equipped with an electromagnetic clutch that energizes and de-energizes to engage and disengage the compressor. Two types of clutches are in general use-the rotating coil and the stationary coil.
The rotating coil clutch has a magnetic coil mounted in the pulley that rotates with the pulley. It operates electrically through connections to a stationary brush assembly and rotating slip rings. The clutch permits the compressor to engage or disengage as required for adequate air conditioning. The stationary coil clutch has the magnetic coil mounted on the end of the compressor. Electrical connections are made directly to the coil leads.
The belt-driven pulley is always in rotation while the engine is running. The compressor is in rotation and operation only when the clutch engages it to the pulley.
Air-conditioning and refrigeration systems use various control devices, including those for the refrigerant, the capillary tube usually found on window units, the automatic expansion valves also found on window units and small package units, the thermal expansion valve, and various types of suction pressure-regulating valves and devices. A brief description of a suction pressure-regulating valve is given below. A suction pressure-regulating valve is used on automotive air conditioning because the varying rpm of the compressor unit must maintain a constant pressure in the evaporator.
Suction pressure-regulating valves may be installed in the suction line at the outlet of the evaporator when a minimum temperature must be maintained. Suction pressure-regulating valves decrease the temperature difference, which would otherwise exist between the compartment temperature and the surface of the cooling coils. The amount of heat that can be transferred into the evaporating refrigerant is directly proportional to the temperature difference. Figure 7-40 shows an exploded view of a typical suction pressure-regulating valve, sometimes called a suction throttling valve in automotive air conditioners.
Three types of suction pressure-regulating valves are used - suction throttling valve (STV), evaporator pressure regulators (EPR), or pilot-operated absolute valve (POA), developed by General Motors Corporation. These valves, in most cases, are adjustable.
The POA valve uses a sealed pressure element that maintains a constant pressure independent of the altitude of the vehicle. There are two basic types of metering devices built into a single container - the VIR (Valves-In-Receiver) and the EEVIR (Evaporator Equalized Valves-In-Receiver). These units combine the POA valve, receiver-drier, thermostatic expansion valve, and sight glass into a single unit.
The VIR assembly is mounted next to the evaporator, which eliminates the need for an external equalizer line between the thermostatic expansion valve and the outlet of the POA valve. The equalizer function is carried out by a drilled hole (equalizer port) between the two-valve cavities in the VIR housing.
The thermostatic expansion valve is also eliminated. The diaphragm of the VIR expansion valve is exposed to the refrigerant vapor entering the VIR unit from the outlet of the evaporator. The sight glass is in the valve housing at the inlet end of the thermostatic valve cavity where it gives a liquid indication of the refrigerant level.
Figure 7-40. - A typical suction pressure-regulating valve.Continue Reading