concerns the different designs and construction features of fire-tube boilers.
The basis for identifying the two types is as follows:
WATER-TUBE BOILERS are those in which the products ofcombustion surround the tubes through which the water flows.
FIRE-TUBE BOILERS are those in which the products of combustion pass through the tubes and the water surrounds them.
Water-tube boilers may be classified in a number of ways. For our purpose, they are classified as either straight tube or bent tube. These classes are discussed separately in succeeding sections. To avoid confusion, make sure you study carefully each illustration referred to throughout the discussion.
The STRAIGHT-TUBE class of water-tube boilers includes three types:
1. Sectional-header cross drum
2. Box-header cross drum
3. Box-header longitudinal drum
In the SECTIONAL-HEADER CROSS DRUM boiler with vertical headers, the headers are steel boxes into which the tubes are rolled. Feedwater enters and passes down through the downcomers (pipes) into the rear sectional headers from which the tubes are supplied. The water is heated and some of it changes into steam as it flows through the tubes to the front headers. The steam-water mixture returns to the steam drum through the circulating tubes and is discharged in front of the steam-drum baffle that helps to separate the water and steam.
Steam is removed from the top of the drum through the dry pipe. This pipe extends along the length of the drum and has holes or slots in the top half for steam to enter.
Headers, the distinguishing feature of this boiler. are usually made of forged steel and are connected to the drums with tubes. Headers may be vertical or at right angles to the tubes. The tubes are rolled and flared into the header. A handhold is located opposite the ends of each tube to facilitate inspection and cleaning. Its purpose is to collect sediment that is removed by blowing down the boiler.
Baffles are usually arranged so gases are directed across the tubes three times before being discharged from the boiler below the drum.
BOX-HEADER CROSS DRUM boilers are shallow boxes made of two plates - a tube-sheet plate that is bent to form the sides of the box, and a plate containing the handholds that is riveted to the tube-sheet plate. Some are designed so that the front plate can be removed for access to tubes. Tubes enter at right angles to the box header and are expanded and flared in the same manner as the sectional-header boiler. The boiler is usually built with the drum in front. It is supported by lugs fastened to the box headers. This boiler has either cross or longitudinal baffling arranged to divide the boiler into three passes. Water enters the bottom of the drum, flows through connecting tubes to the box header, through the tubes to the rear box header, and back to the drum.
BOX-HEADER LONGITUDINAL DRUM boilers have either a horizontal or inclined drum. Box headers are fastened directly to the drum when the drum is inclined. When the drum is horizontal, the front box header is connected to it at an angle greater than 90 degrees. The rear box header is connected to the drum by tubes. Longitudinal or cross baffles can be used with either type.
Bent tube boilers usually have three drums. The drums are usually of the same diameter and positioned at different levels with each other. The uppermost or highest positioned drum is referred to as the STEAM DRUM, while the middle drum is referred to as the WATER DRUM, and the lowest, the MUD DRUM. Tube banks connect the drums. The tubes are bent at the ends to enter the drums radially.
Water enters the top rear drum, passes through the tubes to the bottom drum, and then moves up through the tubes to the top front drum. A mixture of steam and water is discharged into this drum. The steam returns to the top rear drum through the upper row of tubes, while the water travels through the tubes in the lower rear drum by tubes extending across the drum and enters a small collecting header above the front drum.
Many types of baffle arrangements are used with bent-tube boilers. Usually, they are installed so that the inclined tubes between the lower drum and the top front drum absorb 70 to 80 percent of the heat. The water-tube boilers discussed above offer a number of worthwhile advantages. For one thing, they afford flexibility in starting up. They also have a high productive capacityContinue Reading