can throw excess oil onto crane cabs and catwalks, making them unsafe to work on.
Wire rope should not be stored in places where acid is or has been kept. The slightest trace of acid coming in contact with wire rope damages it at that particular spot. Many times, wire rope that has failed has been found to be acid damaged. The importance of keeping acid or acid fumes away from wire rope must be stressed to all hands.
It is especially important that wire rope be cleaned and lubricated properly before it is placed in storage. Fortunately, corrosion of wire rope during storage can be virtually eliminated if the lubricant film is applied properly beforehand and if adequate protection is provided from the weather. Bear in mind that rust, corrosion of wires, and deterioration of the fiber core greatly reduce the strength of wire rope. It is not possible to state exactly the loss of strength that results from these effects. It is certainly great enough to require close observance of those precautions prescribed for protection against such effects.
Wire rope should be inspected at regular intervals, the same as fiber line. In determining the frequency of inspection, you need to carefully consider the amount of use of the rope and conditions under which it is used.
During an inspection, the rope should be examined carefully for fishhooks, kinks, and worn, corroded spots. Usually, breaks in individual wires are concentrated in those portions of the rope that consistently run over the sheaves or bend onto the drum. Abrasion or reverse and sharp bends cause individual wires to break and bend back. The breaks are known as fishhooks. When wires are only slightly worn, but have broken off squarely and stick out all over the rope, the condition is usually caused by overloading or rough handling. Even if the breaks are confined to only one or two strands, the strength of the rope may be seriously reduced. When 4 percent of the total number of wires in the rope are found to have breaks within the length of one lay of the rope, the wire rope is unsafe. Consider a rope unsafe when three broken wires are found in one strand of 6-by-7 rope, six broken wires in one strand of 6-by-19 rope, or nine broken wires in one strand of 6-by-37 rope.
Overloading a rope also causes its diameter to be reduced. Failure to lubricate the rope is another cause of reduced diameter since the fiber core will dry out and eventually collapse or shrink. The surrounding strands are thus deprived of support, and the rope's strength and dependability are correspondingly reduced. Rope that has its diameter reduced to less than 75 percent of its original diameter should be removed from service.
A wire rope should also be removed from service when an inspection reveals widespread corrosion and pitting of the wires. Particular attention should be given to signs of corrosion and rust in the valleys or small spaces between the strands. Since such corrosion is usually the result of improper or infrequent lubrication, the internal wires of the rope are then subject to extreme friction and wear. This form of internal, and often invisible, destruction of the wire is one of the most frequent causes of unexpected and sudden failure of wire rope. The best safeguard, of course, is to keep the rope well lubricated and to handle and store it properly.
Many attachments can be fitted to the ends of wire rope so that the rope can be connected to other wire ropes, pad eyes, or equipment. The attachment used most often to attach dead ends of wire ropes to pad eyes or like fittings on earthmoving rigs is the wedge socket shown in figure 4-14. The socket is applied to the bitter end of the wire rope, as shown in the figure.
Remove the pin and knock out the wedge first. Then, pass the wire rope up through the socket and
Figure 4-14. - Parts of a wedge socket.Continue Reading