of a true matching color or of the color or pattern specified.
A good checklist for inspecting the workmanship of tile should include the following:
1. Ensure the mortar scratch coat is applied and allowed to dry, as specified, and that it is ready in all respects to receive the tile.
2. Ensure that the mortar bed for tile is applied in the required thickness and made true.
3. Ensure that the tile is applied and tapped to true, plumb alignment with all joints straight, plumb, or level and of uniform thickness.
4. Ensure that the color schemes and patterns are faithfully followed and correctly arranged and cut around fixtures.
5. Ensure that wainscoting is extended to the specified height.
6. Ensure that bases align correctly with the finished floor and that joints are filled with plaster of paris, cement, or other mortar as specified.
7. Ensure that all tile walls are cleaned thoroughly without scratching the glazed surface.
Exterior Finishes Exterior finish includes all the exterior materials of a structure, such as walls, roofs, decks, patios, and so on. In this section we will concern ourselves with stucco and built-up roofs, which are common trades that the Builders perform.
STUCCO. - Stucco usually is specified as composed of portland cement, hydrated lime, sand, and water and may have integral waterproofing or coloring pigment added. Painted or galvanized metal lath, expanded metal, or wire mesh is used for the support of stucco, except on masonry walls, and requires nails, staples, and wire for fastenings. The inspector must make certain that all material conforms to the requirements of the project specifications and the referenced standard specifications.
Stucco may be applied on masonry, concrete, or wood-frame walls. As the inspector, make sure that the masonry has an unglazed rough surface with joints struck flush and adequate key to assure a good bond. Concrete is often given a "dash" coat of neat cement and sand before the stucco is applied. If the base is wood-frame walls, the inspector must determine whether the lath or wire is securely fastened to the framing and tied together to form a taut, strong support to the stucco. Specifications usually will require application in a three-coat system as follows: scratch, brown, and color coat.
The inspector must make sure that all masonry joints are filled, struck smooth, and allowed to set before applying the scratch coat. You should then make certain that the scratch coat is pressed thoroughly into the joints for the masonry or into the openings of metal or wire lath to assure adequate key and bond. You must determine that this coat is applied carefully to level and plumb irregularities, that it is scored or combed tier completion to provide good bond, and that it is permitted to dry for the specified period.
The brown coat is usually of the same composition as the scratch coat. The inspector must make sure that the scratch coat is wetted immediately before the brown coat is started; that the brown coat is applied, rodded, and floated to bring all surfaces to true, flat, plumb planes; that the surface is combed by fine cross-hatching to provide a bond for the finish coat; and that the coat is permitted to dry for the prescribed period.
The color coat, also called the finish coat, is a relatively thin coat of special composition to provide the finished surface with texture and color. It is your responsibility to make sure that this coat conforms to the specifications in composition, including colored aggregate, pigment, and integral waterproofing, if prescribed; that it is carefully applied to assure true, plane or curved surfaces and sharp edges; and that on completion it is protected from excessive heat and kept moistened for the specified period to preclude hairline cracks, fading, and checking.
The inspector must also make sure that all surfaces are true; that the surface texture conforms to the finish specified and to the approved sample, if any; and that the color is of a permanent type, and matches, after the stucco is dry, the color specified or indicated by a previously approved sample.
BUILT-UP ROOFING. - A number of different types of roofing are used on structures. One of the main types found on Navy-built structures is BUILT-UP ROOFING. The following information deals with this type of roofing.
Built-up roofing, as the name implies, is a membrane built up on the job from alternate layers of bitumen-saturated felt and bitumen. Because each roofContinue Reading