Quantcast Framing Square

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rafter extending beyond the outer edge of the plate. A measure line (fig. 2-4, view B) is an imaginary reference line laid out down the middle of the face of a rafter. If a portion of a roof is represented by a right triangle, the measure  line  corresponds  to  the  hypotenuse;  the  rise  to the altitude; and, the run to the base. A plumb line (fig. 2-4, view C) is any line that is vertical (plumb) when the rafter is in its proper position. A level line (fig. 2-4, view C) is any line that is horizontal (level) when the rafter is in its proper position. FRAMING  SQUARE LEARNING  OBJECTIVE:  Upon  completing this section, you should be able to describe and solve roof framing problems using the framing square. The framing square is one of the most frequently used Builder tools. The problems it can solve are so many and varied that books have been written on the square alone. Only a few of the more common uses of the square can be presented here. For a more detailed discussion of the various uses of the framing square in solving  construction  problems,  you  are  encouraged  to obtain and study one of the many excellent books on the square. DESCRIPTION The framing square (fig. 2-5, view A) consists of a wide, long member called the blade and a narrow, short member called the tongue. The blade and tongue form a right angle. The face of the square is the side one sees when the square is held with the blade in the left hand, the tongue in the right hand, and the heel pointed away from the body. The manufacturer’s name is usually stamped on the face. The blade is 24 inches long and 2 inches wide. The tongue varies from 14 to 18 inches long and is 1 1/2 inches wide, measured from the outer corner, where the blade and the tongue meet. This corner is called the heel of the square. The outer and inner edges of the tongue and the blade, on both face and back, are graduated in inches. Note how inches are subdivided in the scale on the back of the square. In the scales on the face, the inch is subdivided in the regular units of carpenter’s measure (1/8 or 1/16 inch). On the back of the square, the outer edge of the blade and tongue is graduated in inches and twelfths  of  inches.  The  inner  edge  of  the  tongue  is graduated in inches and tenths of inches. The inner edge of the blade is graduated in inches and thirty-seconds of Figure 2-5.—Framing square: A. Nomenclature; B. Problem solving. inches on most squares. Common uses of the twelfths scale on the back of the framing square will be described later. The tenths scale is not normally used in roof framing. SOLVING BASIC PROBLEMS WITH THE FRAMING  SQUARE The  framing  square  is  used  most  frequently  to  find the length of the hypotenuse (longest side) of a right triangle when the lengths of the other two sides are known.  This  is  the  basic  problem  involved  in determining the length of a roof rafter, a brace, or any other member that forms the hypotenuse of an actual or imaginary right triangle. Figure 2-5, view B, shows you how the framing square is used to determine the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with the other sides each 12 inches long. Place a true straightedge on a board and set the square on the board so as to bring the 12-inch mark on 2-4



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