The superstructure (fig. 10-15) consists of a single
layer of 4 by 12 planks laid on 19 inside stringers
measuring 6 inches by 14 inches by 14 feet. The inside
stringers are fastened to the pile caps with driftbolts.
The outside stringers are fastened to the pile caps with
through-bolts. The deck planks are fastened to the
stringers with 3/8- by 8-inch spikes. After the deck is
laid, 12-foot lengths of 8 by 10s are laid over the
outside stringers to form the curbing. The lengths of
curbing are distributed as shown in the general plan.
The curbing is bolted to the outside stringers to form
the curbing. The lengths of curbing are distributed as
shown in the general plan. The curbing is bolted to the
outside stringers with bolts.
The pier is equipped with a fender system for
protection against shock, caused by contact with
vessels coming or lying alongside. Fender piles,
spaced as shown in the part plan, are driven along both
sides of the pier and bolted to the outside stringers with
bolts. The heads of these bolts are countersunk below
the surfaces of the piles. An 8 by 10 fender wale is
bolted to the backs of the fender piles with bolts.
Lengths of 8 by 10 fender pile chocks are cut to fit
between the piles and bolted to the outside stringers
and the fender wales. The spacing for these bolts is
shown in the part plan. As indicated in the general
plan, the fender system also includes two 14-pile
dolphins, located 15 feet beyond the end of the pier.
A dolphin is an isolated cluster of piles, constructed
as shown in figure 10-16. A similar cluster attached to
a pier is called a pile cluster.
PILE DRIVING TECHNIQUES
When driving piles of any type, always watch both
the pile and equipment. Care must be taken to avoid
damaging the pile or the driving hammer. Watch the
piles carefully for any indications of splitting or
breaking below ground. The next section covers some
of the more common problems you might encounter.
Springing and Bouncing
Springing means that the pile vibrates too much
laterally. Springing may occur when a pile is crooked,
when the butt has not been squared off properly, or