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allow time for their surfaces to air-dry before placing them. BRICKLAYING  METHODS Good   bricklaying   procedure   depends   on   good workmanship   and   efficiency.   Efficiency   involves doing  the  work  with  the  fewest  possible  motions.  Each motion  should  have  a  purpose  and  should  achieve  a definite result. After learning the fundamentals, every Builder   should   develop   methods   for   achieving maximum  efficiency.  The  work  must  be  arranged  in such  a  way  that  the  Builder  is  continually  supplied with brick and mortar. The scaffolding required must be planned before the work begins. It must be built in such away as to cause the least interference with other crew members. Bricks should always be stacked on planks; never pile  them  directly  on  uneven  or  soft  ground.  Do  not store  bricks  on  scaffolds  or  runways.  This  does  not, however,   prohibit   placing   normal   supplies   on scaffolding   during   actual   bricklaying   operations. Except  where  stacked  in  sheds,  brick  piles  should never be more than 7 feet high. When a pile of brick reaches a height of 4 feet, it must be tapered back 1 inch in every foot of height above the 4-foot level. The tops  of  brick  piles  must  be  kept  level,  and  the  taper must be maintained during unpiling operations. BONDS The term bond, as used in masonry, has one of the following  three  different  meanings:  structural  bond, mortar bond, or pattern bond. Structural  bond  refers  to  how  the  individual masonry  units  interlock  or  tie  together  into  a  single structural unit. You can achieve structural bonding of brick and tile walls in one of the following three ways: Overlapping  (interlocking)  the  masonry  units. Embedding  metal  ties  in  connecting  joints. Using   grout   to   adhere   adjacent   wythes   of masonry. Mortar bond refers to the adhesion of the joint mortar to the masonry units or to the reinforcing steel. Pattern  bond  refers  to  the  pattern  formed  by  the masonry units and mortar joints on the face of a wall. The pattern may result from the structural bond, or it may   be   purely   decorative   and   unrelated   to   the structural bond. Figure 4-4 shows the six basic pattern bonds  in  common  use  today.  They  are  running, common  or  American,  Flemish,  English,  stack,  and English cross or Dutch bond. The  running  bond  is  the  simplest  of  the  six patterns, consisting of all stretchers. Because the bond has no headers, metal ties usually form the structural bond. The running bond is used largely in cavity wall construction, brick veneer walls, and facing tile walls made with extra wide stretcher tile. The common, or American, bond is a variation of the   running   bond,   having   a   course   of   full-length headers at regular intervals that provide the structural bond  as  well  as  the  pattern.  Header  courses  usually appear   at   every   fifth,   sixth,   or   seventh   course, depending  on  the  structural  bonding  requirements.  You Figure  4-4.—Types  of  masonry  bonds. 4-9

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