To meet the requirements for contingency support of the Naval Task Force and the Fleet Marine Task Force, PHIBCBs and CBUs must be able to redeploy within 3 and 6 days, respectively. After 30 days in home port, other NCF units should be able to redeploy within 10 days. During the first 30 days after return to home port, each NMCB must be capable of deploying an air detachment within 48 hours. While deployed, NMCBs should be able to redeploy within 6 days. While en route to or from a deployment site, the units must be prepared for immediate diversion to emergency, contingency, or mobilization assignments.
The NMCB is used in this chapter as a sample embarkation. These same basic methods of embarkation are used by the underwater construction teams (UCTs) and PHIBCBs.
For a smooth, expedient mount-out, careful planning and organizing are required. Embarkation, whether by air, land, sea, or any combination, is an all hands evolution where TOTAL support is mandatory for a successful move.
Organization charts for mount-out, staging area flow charts, CESE flow charts (both in the shop and to the staging area), pallet buildup, transport flow charts, and personnel flow charts/checklists are used in tracking the unit's progress throughout the embarkation evolution. Failure to maintain control and status may result in a unit not being able to meet its embarkation commitment. Pre-positioning of materials and maintaining the CESE in a constant state of readiness will help to effect a smooth, expedient mount-out.
Embarkation is a joint undertaking by both the unit and the organization providing the lift. Proper embarkation depends on a mutual understanding of objectives and capabilities and full cooperation in planning and execution. Throughout the planning and execution of the embarkation phase, officers of the embarking unit will be working with their counterparts in other organizations. Early communication and coordination between the user and the organization providing the lift are extremely important.
The U.S. Air Force Airlift Mobility Command (AMC) is normally used when the lift is to be by air. AMC can furnish strategic airlift using the C-141/C-5B aircraft for long-range airlift or C-130 aircraft for tactical airlift. This capability allows for placement of the troops close to the trouble spot. The U.S. Air Force has developed the Computer-Aided Load Manifesting (CALM) system, the same system that is used by the NCF. The purpose of the CALM system is to provide standardized automated capability to design load plans. This system provides placement of mobility equipment, cargo, and personnel on military and Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) cargo capable aircraft. CALM provides a standard automated capability that edits and stores incremental data and produces load plans. CALM can be used in preplanning, exercises, or actual deployments.
Planning for embarkation includes all unit moves, regardless of the method used for movement. Movement methods are determined by the availability of transportation and the transportation requirements of the unit. In amphibious embarkation, there must be determinations of the overall shipping requirements and the embarkation schedules. These determinations are made at the OPNAV level in the chain of command to enable subordinate units to prepare detailed loading plans for individual ships. Planning requires constant coordination between Navy and Air Force leaders. Coordination and cooperation stem from a mutual understanding of the problems of each support group. In the final analysis, the embarkation plan must support the tactical deployment plan of the unit. And in the case of an amphibious landing, the embarkation plan must support the tactical plan for landing and the scheme of maneuvers ashore.
Embarkation planning requires detailed knowledge of the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of ships, aircraft, and amphibious vehicles and their relationships to the troops, supplies, and equipment to be embarked. The planner must be familiar with transport types of amphibious ships, Military Sealift Command (MSC) ships, merchant ships, and cargo aircraft. MSC ships and merchant ships are not designed or equipped for, and do not have crews large enough for amphibious operations. These problems must be anticipated and resolved. Any additional requirements for hatch crews, winchmen, cargo-handling equipment, cargo nets, assault craft, or other facilities must be provided by the user.
To ensure proper embarkation, it is mandatory that these four principles be observed in planningContinue Reading