embarkation of the landing force. Both ship amphibious operations and aircraft assault force support operations must observe the following embarkation principles:
1. Embarkation plans must support the plan for landing and the scheme of maneuvers ashore. Personnel, equipment, and supplies must be loaded in such a manner that they can be unloaded at the time and in the sequence required to support operations ashore.
2. Embarkation plans must provide for the highest possible degree of unit self-sufficiency. Troops should not be separated from their combat equipment and supplies. Thus, weapons crews should be embarked on the same ship or aircraft with their weapons, radio operators with their radios, and equipment operators with their equipment. In addition, each unit should embark with sufficient combat supplies, such as ammunition, fuel, and radio batteries, to sustain its combat operations during the initial period at the operational area. Each individual should have sufficient water and rations to last for 24 hours.
3. Plans must provide for rapid unloading in the objective area. This can be achieved by a balanced distribution of equipment and supplies.
4. Plans must provide for dispersion of critical units and supplies among several ships or aircraft. The danger of not doing so is obvious. If critical units and supplies are not dispersed, loss of one ship or aircraft could cause a loss of combat capability that might seriously jeopardize the mission.
Effective embarkation team planning is dependent upon the early receipt of information from higher authority. Detailed planning begins with the determination of team composition and the assignment of shipping. The following factors are included in team embarkation planning:
Designation of the team embarkation officer(s)
Preparation and submission of basic loading forms by troop units of the embarkation team
Preparation of detailed loading plan
Designation of billeting, messing, and duty officers during the period of the embarkation
Designation and movement of advance parties and advance details to the embarkation area
Establishment of liaison with the embarkation control office in the embarkation area
Preparation of the schedule for movement of troops, vehicles, equipment, and supplies to the embarkation area
Preparation of plans for cargo security in the embarkation area
There are three basic embarkation plans that are normally prepared by the various command levels within the landing force. The landing force embarkation, the group embarkation, and the unit embarkation plans differ in preparation and content.
1. The landing force embarkation plan is prepared by the landing force commander. It includes the organization for embarkation; supplies and equipment to be embarked; embarkation points and cargo assembly areas; control, movement, and embarkation of personnel; and miscellaneous information. The landing force embarkation plan contains information that the embarkation group commander uses to prepare a more detailed plan.
2. The group embarkation plan is prepared by the embarkation group commander. It establishes the formation of embarkation units and assigns shipping or flights to each embarkation unit. While it contains the same basic information as the landing force embarkation plan, there is much greater detail. The group embarkation plan has attached or included within it the embarkation organization and shipping assignment table.
3. The unit embarkation plan is prepared by the embarkation unit commander. It establishes the formation of embarkation teams. It contains, generally, the same information as the group embarkation, but in even greater detail. Attached to the unit embarkation plan is the unit embarkation organization and shipping and/or flight assignment table. NCF units embarking alone and outside of the landing force, either by amphibious means or by air, should prepare an embarkation plan incorporating all of the data necessary for proper embarkation by the unit.
Because of the mobile nature of the NCF, it is necessary to pre-position certain supplies andContinue Reading