In OJT, you must tailor the training methods around the nature of the subject, the time available, and the capabilities of the trainee.
No other method of training is as effective, as intelligent, or as interesting as coach-pupil instruction. In addition to being a quick way of fitting a new worker into the operation of a unit, it serves as one of the best methods of training. Without specific directions and guidance, a worker is likely to waste time and material and form bad work habits. Many industries have apprenticeship programs designed to train workers in a trade or skill. Most apprentice training consists both of coach-pupil instruction with skilled worker supervision and periodic group instruction.
Self-study should be encouraged. Skilled and semiskilled jobs require a considerable amount of job knowledge and judgment ability. Even in simple jobs, there is much basic information a worker must acquire. But the more complicated technical jobs involve highly specialized technical knowledge and related skills that must be taught.
Group instruction is a practical adjunct to direct supervision and self-study. It is a time-saver when several workers need the same job-related knowledge or procedures. The supervisor or trainer can check training progress and clarify matters that are difficult for the trainees to understand. Group instruction, if intelligently used, can speed up production. For example, suppose you have six trainees learning the same job. Four of the trainees are having trouble with a certain job element, while the other two have learned it. The four people having trouble can be brought over to the other two, and in a short time the difficulty will most likely be solved. In OJT, this is called group instruction. As you can see, group instruction is not the same as classroom or academic instruction.
Another type of OJT is piecemeal instruction. For instance, a crew member asks you for information and you supply it. That is piecemeal instruction. A supervisor's orders are, in a sense, a piecemeal method of instruction because they should let others know what, when, where, how, and why. Other examples of piecemeal instruction are explaining regulations, procedures, and orders; holding special meetings; indoctrinating a new person; and conducting organized meetings.
In any type of effective training where one individual is working directly under the supervision of another, the trainers and trainees must understand the objectives of the training. Factors deserving careful consideration include determining the training needs of the trainees, defining the purpose of training, and explaining or discussing job training concerns with the trainees.
In determining training needs, it is often a good idea to interview the trainees. A summary of previously acquired skills and knowledge relative to the job can be learned by proper questioning. Compare jobs the trainees know how to do with those they will be doing. Determine training needs (required knowledge and skills minus the knowledge and skills the trainees already possess). Training needs should be determined for each job pertaining to the trainee's position assignment. Analyze the job to be done and have all the necessary equipment and materials available before each job training situation.
In defining the purpose of training, you should clearly explain the purpose of the job, duty, or task to be performed by the trainees. You should also point out to the trainees their place on the team and explain to them how they help in getting the unit's mission done. Stress the advantages of doing the job well, and how the training benefits them, their organization, and the Seabees.
The trainers should also explain facts about the job to be done, principles that are proven and workable, and directions on ways to do the job safely, easily, and economically. The trainers should explain any technical terms or techniques that will improve the skill of the trainees. The importance of teamwork and attention to detail in each operation in a job should be stressed.
The trainers and trainees should discuss the problems that arise in doing a job, and try to clear up any questions the trainees may have concerning the job. Trainers should point out to the trainees the similarity of different jobs. The relationship of procedures in a particular job, to things with which the trainees are acquainted, should also be discussed. This allows the trainees to learn through association with past experiences. It also is important for the trainers to discuss the progress of the trainees.
The most valuable end product of a peacetime military operation is trained personnel. Regardless ofContinue Reading