3. Required excess air must be maintained at a minimum to reduce stack thermal loss.
4. Flame propagation temperature must be maintained.
Vaporization within the burner is generally confined to small domestic services, such as water heating, space heating, and cooking, and to some industrial processes. Burners for this purpose are usually of the pot type with natural or forced draft, gravity float-type feed control, and hand or electric ignition. Kerosene, diesel oils, and commercial oils of grades Nos. 1 and 2 are suitable fuels because they vaporize at relatively low temperatures.
If oil is to be vaporized in the combustion space in the instant of time available, it must be broken up into many small particles to expose as much surface as possible to the heat. This atomization is done in three basic ways:
1. By using steam or air under pressure to break the oil into droplets
2. By forcing oil under pressure through a suitable nozzle
3. By tearing an oil film into tiny drops by centrifugal force
Primary combustion air is usually admitted to the furnace through a casing surrounding the oil burner. The casing is spiral-vaned to impart a swirling motion to the air, opposite to the motion of the oil. Three types of burners used for atomization are the steam- or air-atomizing burner, the mechanical-atomizing burner, and the rotary-cup burner.
Burners should be piped with a circulating fuel line, including cutout, bypass, pressure-relief valves, and strainer ahead of the burner. Burners should be accessible and removable for cleaning, and the orifice nozzle plates should be exchan geable to compensate for a wide range in load demand.
The burners consist of a properly formed jet-mixing nozzle to which oil and steam or air is piped. The conveying medium mixes with fine particles of fuel passing through the nozzle, and the mixture is projected into the furnace. Nozzles may be of the external or internal mixing type, designed to project a flame that is flat or circular and long or short. A burner should be selected to give the form of flame that is most suitable for furnace conformation. Nozzles should be positioned so there is no flame impingement on the furnace walls and so combustion is completed before the i-lame contacts the boiler surfaces.
Steam-atomizing burners are simpler and less expensive than the air-atomizing type and are usually used for locomotive and small power plants. They handle commercial grade fuel oils Nos. 4, 5, and 6 and require a steam pressure varying from 75 to 150 psi. The oil pressure needs to be enough to carry oil to the burner tip, usually from 10 to 15 psi. Burners using air as the atomizing medium are designed for three air pressure ranges: low pressure to 2 psi, medium pressure to 25 psi, and high pressure to 100 psi.
Figure 4-54 shows a steam-atomizing burner of the external mixing type. In view (A), the oil reaches the tip through a central passage and whirls against a sprayer plate to break up at right angles, view (B), to the stream of steam. The atomizing stream surrounds the oil chamber and receives a whirling motion from vanes in its path. When air is used as the atomizing medium in this burner, it should be at 10 psi for light oils and 20 psi for heavy oils. In view (C), combustion air enters through a register; vanes or shutters are adjustable to give control of excess air.
The burner is universally used except in domestic or low-pressure service. Good atomization results when oil under high pressure (to 300 psi) passes through a small orifice and emerges as a conical mist. The orifice atomizing the fuel is often aided by a slotted disk that whirls the oil before it enters the nozzle.
Figure 4-55 shows a mechanical-atomizing burner. View (A) is a cross section of the burner; view (B) shows the central movable control rod that varies, through a regulating pin, the area of tangential slots in the sprayer plate and the volume of oil passing through the orifice; view (C) shows a design with a wide-capacity range, obtained by supplying oil to the burner tip at a constant rate in excess of demand. The amount of oil burned varies with the load; the excess is returned.
The burner (fig. 4-56) atomizes fuel oil by tearing it into tiny drops. A conical or cylindrical cup rotates at high speed (about 3,450 rpm), if motor driven. Oil moving along this cup reaches the periphery where centrifugal force flings it into an airstream. It is suitable for small low-pressure boilers.Continue Reading