Indirect labor includes labor required to support construction operations but does not. in itself. produce an end product.
Manpower estimates consist of a listing of the number of direct labor man-days required to complete the various activities of a specific project. These estimates may show only the man-days for each activity or they may be in sufficient detail to list the number of man-days for each rating.
Master activities consist of a breakdown of a complete project in sufficient detail to provide a comprehensive description of the project.
Material estimates consist of a listing and description of the various materials and the quantities required to construct a given project. Information for preparing material estimates is obtained from the activity estimates. drawings, and specifications.
Planning is the process of determining require- ments and devising and developing methods and a scheme of action for construction of a project. Good construction planning is a combination of various elements: the activity, material, equipment, and manpower estimates: project layout; project location; material delivery and storage; work schedules; quality control; special tools required; environmental protection: safety; and progress control. All of these elements depend upon each other. They must be taken into account in any well-planned project.
Preliminary estimates are made from limited information. such as the general description of projects or preliminary, plans and specifications having little or no detail. Preliminary estimates are prepared to establish costs for the budget and to program general manpower requirements.
Scheduling is the process of determining when an action must be taken and when materials, equipment, and manpower will be required. It shows the sequence, the time for starting, the time required for perfor- mance. and the time for completion.
Specificationsare written information about how a building or project is to be built. They are prepared under the direction of the architect and engineer. The type and quality, of materials, workmanship, finish. and final appearance are spelled out. The written specifications, along with the drawings. should give all the information needed to complete any project. Specifications control the actions and performance of all parties who are working on or supplying material to a construction project. Specifications may be only a few pages long and give general instructions and specific information on materials. Short specifications are common in small construction jobs. In heavy construction. however. specifications may run hundreds of pages. Unless you understand how the various parts of he specifications interrelate. the sheer mass of the written material can be confusing. Specifications are composed of three major parts:
Bid and contract forms
As an electrician, you will be working with specifications that deal with the technical areas related to your job. You will be responsible for the general and supplemental specifications. special conditions. and addenda or changes to conditions that may affect you.
The technical specifications spell out exactly what material is to be used. what standards are to be met. and what work is to be done in all areas ofconstruction. The Construction Specification Institute (CSI) has developed a standard format that is widely followed to develop complete specifications. Bidding and contract requirements are covered in Division 0. Technical specifications are covered in Divisions 1 through 16. Division 17, expeditionary structures, was established specifically by, NAVFAC. As you can see from table 2-1, the specifications are arranged in the sequence in which the project will progress. starting with bidding and contract requirements.
The main basis for defining the required activities, measuring the quantities of material, and making accurate estimates is the information contained in con- struction drawings. You should read all notes and references carefully and examine all details and refer- ence drawings thoroughly. You should check the ori- entation of sectional views carefully. Verify the Revision section near the title block to check whether the indicated changes were in fact made in the drawing itself. When inconsistencies are found between draw- ings and specifications. the specifications should take precedence.
Drawings are generally categorized according to their intended purposes: preliminary drawings. pre-sentation drawings. working drawings. and shop drawings.Continue Reading