to cut on the waste side of the lines and making all lines from the face of the material.
A miter joint is made by mitering (cutting at an angle) the ends or edges of the members that are to be joined together (figure 3-44). The angle of the miter cut is one-half of the angle formed by the joined members. In rectangular mirror frames, windows, door casing boxes, and the like, adjacent members form a 90° angle, and, consequently, the correct angle for mitering is one-half of 90°, or 45°. For members forming an equal-sided figure with other than four sides (such as an octagon or a pentagon), the correct mitering angle can be found by dividing the number of sides the figure will have into 180° and subtracting the result from 90°. For an octagon (an eight-sided figure), determine the mitering angle by subtracting from 90°180° divided by 8 or 90° minus 22.5° equals 67.5°. For a pentagon (a five-sided figure), the angle is
Members can be end mitered to 45° in the wooden miter box and to any angle in the steel miter box by setting the saw to the desired angle, or on the circular saw, by setting the miter gauge to the desired angle. Members can be edge mitered to any angle on the circular saw by tilting the saw to the required angle.
Sawed edges are sometimes unsuitable for gluing. However, if the joint is to be glued, the edges can be mitered on a jointer, as shown in figure 3-52.
This is a dangerous operation and caution should be taken.
Since abutting surfaces of end-mitered members do not hold well when they are merely glued, they should be reinforced. One type of reinforcement is the corrugated fastener. This is a corrugated strip of metal with one edge sharpened for driving into the joint. The fastener is placed at a right angle to the line between the members, half on one member and half on the other, and driven down flush with the member. The corrugated fastener mars the appearance of the surface into which it is driven; therefore, it is used only on the backs of picture frames and the like.
A more satisfactory type of fastener for a joint between end-mitered members is the slip feather. This is a thin piece of wood or veneer that is glued
Figure 3-52.-Beveling on a jointer for a mitered edge joint. into a kerf cut in the thickest dimension of the joint.
First, saw about halfway through the wood from the outer to the inner corner, then apply glue to both sides of the slip feather, pushing the slip feather into the kerf. Clamp it tightly and allow the glue to dry. After it has dried, remove the clamp and chisel off the protruding portion of the slip feather.
A joint between edge-mitered members can also be reinforced with a spline. This is a thick piece of wood that extends across the joint into grooves cut in the abutting surfaces. A spline for a plain miter joint is shown in figure 3-44. The groove for a spline can be cut either by hand or by a circular saw.
A three-sided recess running with the grain is called a groove, and a recess running across the grain is called a dado. A groove or dado that does not extend all the way across the wood is called a stopped groove or a stopped dado. A stopped dado is also known as a gain (figure 3-46). A two-sided recess running along an edge is called a rabbet T (figure 3-45). Dadoes, gains, and rabbets are not, strictly speaking, grooves; but joints that include them are generally called grooved joints.
A groove or dado can be cut with a circular saw as follows: Lay out the groove or dado on the end wood (for a groove) or edge wood (for a dado) that will first come in contact with the saw. Set the saw to the desired depth of the groove above the table, and setContinue Reading