to binding at the hinge edge, as well as friction between the dead bolt and strike plate or between the latch bolt and strike plate.
METAL DOORS. - Metal doors, commonly used in warehouses, hangars, stockrooms, galleys, and other areas where hard service or other operations require them, are of various types: metal clad, hollow metal, and solid metal, with variations including interchangeable glass and screen panels.
Because most metal and fittings are shop-designed and fabricated, it can be assumed that they will maintain their shape and mechanical operating ability provided hinges, locks, and other fittings remain secure in their fastenings. This is done by checking screens, nuts and bolts, and special fasteners and operating devices regularly, keeping them tight and in good order. Building settlement, mechanical failure, and collision may require investigation and corrective measures for a basic cause of misalignment in the structure framing itself. Frames must be plumb and corners square, so the door fits the opening with proper clearances. Weatherproofing and caulking must be maintained in a workmanlike manner. Mechanically operated doors must be removed and straightened, repaired, or replaced. Repair material and finishing should match the existing material. Shop repair of metal doors should meet acceptable standards for welding, riveting, and sightliness. Replacement of surface metal on fireproof, metal-clad wood doors must be weathertight and of material of the same gauge as originally provided. Service doors in galleys, stockrooms, and other areas where personnel pass in and out frequently with arms loaded should be provided with kickplates and with bumper protection to prevent slamming against walls.
Both wood and metal windows are found in structures at Navy activities, and the inspector should be alert to detect any defects present in either type. Windows should be inspected quarterly, as appropriate, for loose-fitting or damaged frames, ill-fitting or broken sash, cracked or broken glass, deteriorated putty or caulking, broken or worn sash balances, and missing or broken hardware.
Window failures may result from various causes - the most common of which is weathering. Weathering causes loss of putty, paint, and caulking and this leads to deterioration and rotting in wood windows and rusting in metal windows. If atmospheric conditions cause ordinary putty to deteriorate quickly, plastic glazing compound should be substituted. Caulking around window frames must be maintained in good order to prevent leakage of moisture and air (fig. 7-7). Rust spots on metal sash and frames should be wire brushed or sanded, cleaned with a rag saturated with mineral spirits, and then painted. Problems of alignment caused by building settlements must be adjusted in conjunction with overall corrective measures, that may involve stabilizing the foundation and framing.
Roof structures can be classified according to their shapes and structural limitations. They can be flat, pitched, sloped (such as shed or lean-to types), curved (such as provided by bow-string trusses or circular arches), or mansard, which is a combination of a steep pitched and a shallow pitched roof. Roofs that are supported on exterior walls and at a ridge or bearing at some intermediate point are usually referred to as frame roofs. Those that are truss or arch supported only at the exterior walls or other trusses or columns are referred to as trussed roofs. Rafters are the structural members of a frame roof.
Rafters are generally more accessible to inspection than other structural members of a frame building. They are usually uncovered on the underside, so defects and failures can be visually detected. Warped, twisted, or broken rafters can be replaced or, if the roof surface is sound, they may be repaired. Warped and twisted rafters can be straightened by the addition of solid bridging and bracing; broken pieces can be scabbed without harm to the roof covering. Railers, sheathing, and other roof-framing members that are damaged by decay must be replaced. A prevalent cause of the need for extensive roof maintenance is failure of the roof covering. Leaky roofs no longer protect the framing, thus allowing weathering and eventual decay.
Trusses should be inspected at least once a year to check for the existence of problems such as the following:
Failure in upper and lower chord or web membersContinue Reading