Figure 3-20. - Comparison of plain and prestressed concrete beams.
with unusual techniques and/or reproduction processes. Many special types of concrete are made with portland cement as a binding medium; some use binders other than portland cement.
Conventional concrete weighs approximately 150 pounds per cubic foot. Lightweight concrete weighs 90 to 120 pounds per cubic foot, depending on its intended use. Lightweight concrete can be made by using either gas-generating chemicals or lightweight aggregates, such as expanded shale, clay, or slag. Concrete, containing aggregates like perlite or vermiculite, is very light in weight and is primarily used as insulating material. Lightweight concrete is usually classified according to its weight per cubic foot.
Semi-lightweight concrete has a unit weight of 115 to 130 pounds per cubic foot and an ultimate compressive strength comparable to normal concrete. Sand of normal weight is substituted partially or completely for the lightweight fine aggregate.
Insulating lightweight concrete has a unit weight ranging from 15 to 90 pounds per cubic foot, and its compressive strength seldom exceeds 1,000 psi. This type of concrete is generally used for insulating applications, such as fireproofing.
Structural lightweight concrete has a unit weight of 85 to 115 pounds per cubic foot and a 28-day compressive strength in excess of 2,500 psi. This type is used primarily to reduce the dead-load weight in concrete structural members, such as floors, walls, and roof sections in high-rise structures.
Heavyweight concrete is produced with special heavy aggregates and has a density of up to 400 pounds per cubic foot. This type is used principally for radiation shielding, for counterweights, and for other applications where higher density is desired. Except for density, the physical properties of heavyweight concrete are similar to those of normal or conventional weight concrete.
Tilt-up concrete construction is a special form of precast concrete building. This method consists basically of jobsite prefabrication in which the walls are cast in a horizontal position, tilted to a vertical position, and then secured in place. Tilt-up construction is best suited for large one-story buildings, but it can be used in multistory structures. Usually, multistory structures are built by setting the walls for the first story, placing the floor above, then repeating the procedure for each succeeding floor. An alternate method is to cast two- to four-story panels.
The wall panels are usually cast on the floor slab of the structure. Care must be exercised to ensure that the floor slab is smooth and level and that all openings for pipes and other utilities are temporarily plugged. The casting surface is treated with a good bond-breaking agent to ensure the panel does not adhere when it is lifted.
The steel in a tilt-up panel is set in the same manner as it is in a floor slab. Mats of reinforcementContinue Reading