welding job that requires you to follow them. For example, when a job is assigned to a Naval Construction Force unit, it is accompanied by a set of drawings and specifications. When there is welding required for the job, the specifications normally require it to be accomplished according to a specific code requirement. For instance, if your unit is tasked to fabricate a welded steel structure, the specifications may require that all welding be accomplished according to AWS D1.1 (Structural Welding Code). The unit is then responsible for ensuring that the welders assigned to the job are qualified to produce the welds according to this welding procedure specification. As shown in figure 3-37, a welding procedure specification is simply a document that provides details of the required variables for a specific welding application.
For an NMCB, the welding procedure specification is normally prepared by the certified welding inspector at the local Naval Construction Training Center. Using the Structural Welding Code, along with the project drawings and specifications, the welding inspector develops a welding procedure specification that meets the requirements of the job. The importance of this document is that it assures that each of the variables can be repeated by qualified welders.
Once a welding procedure specification has been developed and qualified, welders are then required to perform a Welding Performance Qualification test. After the test is complete, the weld specimens are tested according to the requirements of the Welding Procedure Specification. You may use either destructive or nondestructive tests. One example of a destructive test is the guided-bend test. An X-ray test is considered nondestructive. Testing is discussed in greater detail later in this training manual.
NOTE: When you are assigned to do a welding job, make a thorough examination of the drawings and specifications. Look carefully at the notes on the drawings and Section 5 (metals) of the specifications. If specific codes are cited, inform the project supervisor so that you can receive the training needed to perform the required welds.
Drawings or sketches are used to convey the ideas of an engineer to the skilled craftsman working in the shop. As a welder, you must be able to work from a drawing in order to fabricate metal parts exactly as the engineer has designed them.
To read a drawing, you must know how engineers use lines, dimensions, and notes to communicate their ideas on paper. In this section, we briefly discuss each of these drawing elements. For a more thorough discussion, refer to publications, such as Blueprint Reading and Sketching, NAVEDTRA 10077-F1, or to Engineering Aid 3, NAVEDTRA 10696.
Figure 3-38 shows many of the different types of lines that are used in drawings. You can see that each line has a specific meaning you must understand to interpret a drawing correctly. Let's discuss a few of the most important types. A visible line (sometimes called object line) is used to show the edges of an object that are visible to the viewer. For example, if you look at one of the walls of the room you are in, you can see the outline of the walls and (depending on the wall you are looking at) the outline of doors and windows. On a drawing, these visible outlines or edges can be shown using visible lines that are drawn as described in figure 3-38.
Now look at the wall again. Assuming that the wall is wood frame, you know that there are studs or framing members inside the wall that you cannot see. Also, the wall may contain other items, such as water pipes and electrical conduit, that you also cannot see. On a drawing, the edges of those concealed studs and other items can be shown using hidden lines (fig. 3-38). These lines are commonly used in drawings. As you can imagine, the more hidden lines there are, the more difficult it becomes to decipher what is what; however, there is another way these studs and other items can be "seen." Imagine that you "cut away" the wallboard that covers the wall and replace it with a sheet of clear plastic. That clear plastic can be thought of as a cutting or viewing plane (fig. 3-38) through which the previously concealed studs, piping, and conduit are now visible. Now those items can be drawn using visible lines, rather than hidden lines. A view of this type is called a sectional view, and a drawing of the view is called a section drawing. Section drawings are commonly used to show the internal components of a complicated object.
Many times, you will see lines drawn on the visible surfaces of a section drawing. These lines, called section lines, are used to show different types of materials.Continue Reading