other parts through oil passages under pressure from the oil pump.
The oil from the pump enters the oil galleries. From the oil galleries, it flows to the main bearings and camshaft bearings. The main bearings have oil-feed holes or grooves that feed oil into drilled passages in the crankshaft. The oil flows through these passages to the connecting rod bearings. From there, on some engines, it flows through holes drilled in the connecting rods to the piston-pin bearings.
Cylinder walls are lubricated by splashing oil thrown off from the connecting-rod bearings. Some engines use small troughs under each connecting rod that are kept full by small nozzles which deliver oil under pressure from the oil pump. These oil nozzles deliver an increasingly heavy stream as speed increases. At very high speeds these oil streams are powerful enough to strike the dippers directly. This causes a much heavier splash so that adequate lubrication of the pistons and the connecting-rod bearings is provided at higher speeds.
If a combination system is used on an overhead valve engine, the upper valve train is lubricated by pressure from the pump.
A somewhat more complete pressurization of lubrication is achieved in the force-feed lubrication system (fig. 6-31). Oil is forced by the oil pump from the crankcase to the main bearings and the camshaft bearings. Unlike the combination system the connecting-rod bearings are also fed oil under pressure from the pump.
Oil passages are drilled in the crankshaft to lead oil to the connecting-rodbearings. The passages deliver oil from the main bearing journals to the rod bearing journals. In some engines, these opening are holes that line up once for every crankshaft revolution. In other engines, there are annular grooves in the main bearings through which oil can feed constantly into the hole in the crankshaft.
The pressurized oil that lubricates the connecting- rod bearings goes on to lubricate the pistons and walls by squirting out through strategically drilled holes. This lubrication system is used in virtually all engines that are equipped with semifloating piston pins.
In a full force-feed lubrication system (fig. 6-32), the main bearings, rod bearings, camshaft bearings, and the complete valve mechanism are lubricated by oil under pressure. In addition, the full force-feed lubrication system provides lubrication under pressure to the pistons and the piston pins. This is accomplished by holes drilled the length of the connecting rod, creating an oil passage from the connecting rod bearing
Figure 6-31. - Force-feed lubrication system.Continue Reading