Ammonia cylinders do not have fusible plugs because no fusible ammonia-resistant material is available. This presents an acute hazard because an ammonia cylinder filled to the legal limit becomes completely liquid at 145F, and higher temperature results in a buildup of hydrostatic pressure. Cylinders are tested at 700 psi under Interstate Commerce Commission Regulations.
Test for leaks in ammonia gas piping with a bottle of diluted muriatic acid. White fumes form as with chlorine.
Ammonia solution or aqua ammonia can be stored indefinitely, but ammonia gas is created at about 80F if the container is open. Store it in a cool place and keep the container tightly plugged. Dilute with cool water to 15 percent ammonia content before feeding. Keep the room housing the feeder well ventilated.
Precautions in storing and handling chlorine also apply to sulfur dioxide (SO,). Leaks are located with a bottle of ammonia water.
Q8. Chlorination equipment can be classified by type, depending on what factor?
Q9. What type of chlorinator, in most applications, is used as emergency equipment?
Q10. When deciding on a location for chlorination equipment, what factor should be the primary safety concern?
Q11. What chemical solution is used to detect chlorine leaks?
Q12. If a leak develops on a chlorine cylinder that can not be stopped, you should take what action?
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify material, equipment, and procedures required to perform water treatment control effectively.
Frequent chemical analyses and bacteriological examinations of raw and treated water are required to determine and control treatment to ensure a safe, potable water. Chemical analyses will determine proper water treatment and the safety of the water in respect to chemical content. Bacteriological examinations will determine the necessity for disinfection, as well as the safety of the water, following treatment in terms of bacteria content.
You may be called upon to collect samples of water for chemical analysis and bacteriological examination. You may also have to make various types of treatment control tests. (See appendix I). This information will aid you in performing these duties. Safety precautions to be observed by personnel engaged in laboratory work are also covered.
The collection of samples for testing for quality control and safety is an important function, because, unless the water sample is representative and uncontaminated, test results will not indicate the actual condition of the water supply. Sample containers should be of materials that will not contaminate the sample and, before use, should be cleaned thoroughly with a detergent and freshwater rinse to remove all surface dirt. Chemically resistant glass is a suitable material for all sample containers, and polyethylene may be used for samples for chemical analyses. The size of the sample container used will depend upon the amount of water needed for a test.
To make certain that representative, uncon- taminated samples are obtained, you must observe normal precautions against accidental contamination. Sample containers and caps should always be rinsed well with the water to be tested. Direct hand contact with the mouth of the container, or with the cap, is to be avoided. Take samples with a minimum of splashing.
When collecting samples for chemical analysis, you will find a gallon of water usually enough to determine the mineral content. To obtain accurate test results, flush the sampling lines thoroughly. The bottles should be rinsed out several times with the water to be collected. Procedures for obtaining samples from water supplies for chemical analysis are given below. These procedures should be carefully followed.
To obtain a representative sample from a well, pump the well until the normal drawdown is reached. Rinse the chemically cleaned sample container and capContinue Reading