Figure 8-33.-Types of masonry bonds.
Using grout to adhere adjacent wythes of
Mortar bond refers to the adhesion of the joint
mortar to the masonry units or to the reinforcing steel.
Pattern bond refers to the pattern formed by the
masonry units and mortar joints on the face of a wall.
The pattern may result from the structural bond, or
may be purely decorative and unrelated to the
structural bond. Figure 8-33 shows the six basic
pattern bonds in common use today: running,
common or American, Flemish, English, stack, and
English cross or Dutch bond.
The running bond is the simplest of the six
patterns, consisting of all stretchers. Because the
bond has no headers, metal ties usually form the
structural bond. The running bond is used largely in
cavity wall construction, brick veneer walls, and
facing tile walls made with extra wide stretcher tile.
The common, or American, bond is a variation of
the running bond, having a course of full-length
headers at regular intervals that provide the structural
bond as well as the pattern. Header courses usually
appear at every fifth, sixth, or seventh course,
depending on the structural bonding requirements.
You can vary the common bond with a Flemish header
course. In laying out any bond pattern, be sure to start
the corners correctly.
In a common bond, use a
three-quarter closure at the corner of each header
In the Flemish bond, each course consists of
alternating headers and stretchers. The headers in
every other course center over and under the
stretchers in the courses in between.
between stretchers in all stretcher courses align
vertically. When headers are not required for
structural bonding, you can use bricks called blind
headers. You can start the corners in two different
ways. In the Dutch corner, a three-quarter closure
starts each course. In the English corner, a 2-inch or
quarter closure starts the course.
The English bond consists of alternating courses
of headers and stretchers. The headers center over
and under the stretchers. However, the joints between
stretchers in all stretcher courses do not align
vertically. You can use blind headers in courses that
are not structural bonding courses.
The stack bond is purely a pattern bond, with no
overlapping units and all vertical joints aligning. You
must use dimensionally accurate or carefully
rematched units to achieve good vertical joint
alignment. You can vary the pattern with combi-
nations and modifications of the basic patterns shown
in figure 8-33.
This pattern usually bonds to the
backing with rigid steel ties or 8-inch-thick stretcher
units when available.
In large wall areas or
load-bearing construction, insert steel pencil rods into
the horizontal mortar joints as reinforcement.
The English cross or Dutch bond is a variation of
the English bond. It differs only in that the joints
between the stretchers in the stretcher courses align
vertically. These joints center on the headers in the
courses above and below.
When a wall bond has no header courses, use
metal ties to bond the exterior wall brick to the
Figure 8-34 shows three typical