crankshaft. The pistons are connected to an angled swash plate using ball joints. Swash plate compressors are of three types - five-cylinder, six-cylinder, and five-cylinder variable.
The five- and six-cylinder swash compressor has, in effect, three cylinders at each end of its inner assembly. A swash plate of diagonal design is mounted on the compressor shaft. It actuates the pistons, forcing them to move back and forth in the cylinders as the shaft is rotated. Reed valves control suction and discharge; crossover passages feed refrigerant to both high- and low-service fittings at the rear end of the compressor. A gear type of oil pump in the rear head provides for compressor lubrication.
The five-cylinder variable swash plate compressor is different from the other swash plate compressors. It uses a plate connected to a hinge pin that permits the swash plate to change its angle. The angle of the swash plate is controlled by a bellows valve that senses suction pressure. During high load conditions the swash plate angle is large, and during low load conditions, the swash plate is smaller. The displacement of the compressor is high at a large angle and low at a small angle.
A scotch-yoke compressor changes rotary motion into reciprocating motion. The basic mechanism of the scotch yoke contains four pistons mounted 90 degrees from each other. Opposed pistons are pressed into a yoke that rides on a slide block located on the shaft eccentric (fig. 7-38). Rotation of the shaft provides a reciprocating motion with no connecting rods. Refrigerant flows into the crankcase through the rear and is drained through the reeds attached to the piston tops during the suction stroke. Refrigerant is then discharged through the valve plate out the connector block at the rear. These compressors are shorter in length and larger in diameter than other compressors.
Compressor service valves are built into some systems. They serve as a point of attachment for test gauges or servicing hoses. The service valves have three position controls - front seated, back seated, and midposition (fig. 7-39).
The position of this double-faced valve is controlled by rotating the valve stem with a service valve wrench. Clockwise rotation seats the front face of the valve and shuts off all refrigerant flow in the system. This position isolates the compressor from the rest of the system.
Figure 7-39. - Three-way service valve positions.
Figure 7-38. - Four-cylinder scotch-yoke mechanism.Continue Reading