Though draining the system from time to time and refilling with fresh water is one method of control, it is not recommended. Soon after refilling, the dissolved solids again build up to a dangerous concentration. A more common practice is to waste a certain amount of water continually from the system to the sewer. The water wasted is called blowdown. Blowdown is sometimes accomplished by wasting sump water through an overflow. A better practice, however, is to bleed the required quantity of blowdown from the warm water leaving the condenser on its way to the cooling tower. A mineral salt buildup (calcium bicarbonate concentration) of 10 grains per gallon is considered the maximum allowable concentration for untreated water in the sump if serious corrosion and scaling difficulties are to be avoided.
Cooling towers evaporate about 2 gallons of water every hour for each ton of refrigeration. A gallon of water weighs 8.3 pounds, and about 1,000 Btu is needed to evaporate 1 pound of water. Thus, to evaporate a gallon of water, 8.3 x 1,000 or 8,300 Btu is required.
In many instances, the makeup water contains dissolved salts in excess of 10 grains per gallon. It is obvious, then, that even 100 percent blowdown will not maintain a sump concentration of 10 grains. If the blowdown alone cannot maintain satisfactory control, then chemicals should be used.
Makeup water for a cooling tower is the sum of drift loss, evaporation, and blowdown. The drift loss for mechanical draft towers ranges from 0.1 percent of the total water being cooled for the better designed towers to as much as 0.3 percent. In estimating makeup water for a cooling tower, the higher value of 0.3 percent for drift loss is suggested. If the drift loss is actually less than this, the excess makeup water supplied is merely wasted down the overflow. This does, in effect, increase the amount of blowdown and is favorable from the viewpoint that the concentration of scale-forming compounds in the tower sump will be somewhat lower.
Redwood is a highly durable material; however, it is not immune to deterioration. The type of deterioration varies with the nature of the environmental conditions to which the wood is exposed. The principal types of deterioration are leaching, delignification, and microbiological attack.
Algae and slime are present in water and must be controlled chemically or the rate of heat transfer in the condenser will be materially reduced. Condenser tubing, cooling tower piping, and metal surfaces in the water-circulating system must be protected from scale and corrosion.
Using too much of a chemical or using the wrong chemical is known as overtreatment. It can materially reduce the performance or the life of a cooling tower condenser circuit.
A compressor is the machine used to withdraw the heat-laden refrigerant vapor from the evaporator, compress it from the evaporator pressure to the condensing pressure, and push it to the condenser. A compressor is merely a simple pump that compresses the refrigerant gas. Compressors may be divided into the following three types - reciprocating, rotary, and centrifugal. The function of compressing a refrigerant is the same in all three general types, but the mechanical means differ considerably. Rotary compressors are used in small sizes only, and their use is limited almost exclusively to domestic refrigerators and small water coolers. Centrifugal compressors are used in large refrigerating and air-conditioning systems (fig. 7-22).
Reciprocating compressors are usually powered by electric motors, although gasoline, diesel, and turbine drivers are sometimes used. In terms of capacity, reciprocating compressors are made in fractional horsepower for small, self-contained air conditioners and refrigeration equipment, increasing in size to about 250 tons or more capacity in larger installations. Reciprocating compressors are furnished in open, semisealed, and sealed (hermetic) types.
OPEN. - An open type of compressor shaft is driven by an external motor. The shaft passes through the crankcase housing and is equipped with a shaft seal to prevent refrigerant and oil from leaking or moisture and air from entering the compressor. Pistons are actuated by crankshafts or eccentric drive mechanisms mounted on the shaft. Discharge valves are usually mounted in a plate over the pistons. Suction valves are usually mounted either in the pistons, if suction vapors enter the cylinder through the side of the cylinder or through the crankcase, or in the valve plate over the pistons, if suction vapors enter the cylinder through the head and valve plate.Continue Reading