through the wall. This type of unit has the advantage of requiring less floor or ceiling space.
UNVENTED UNITS are usually the open-flame type where the gas burns in an open combustion chamber. These heaters should be used in a well-ventilated area. Ventilation ensures that the carbon monoxide produced by the gas flame is removed.
Gas-fired space heaters and their connections must be of the type approved by the American Gas Association (AGA). They must also be installed according to AGA specifications. Installation factors, such as the type of gas, the capacity of the heater, and the line pressure drops, must be known to ensure proper plumbing procedures with respect to the gas service line. All newly installed piping should be tested for gas leaks. These tests should comply with NAVFAC DM3.
On vented gas units, be careful to install the venting system properly to minimize the harmful effects of condensation and to ensure that the combustion products are carried away. During operat ion, the inner surface of the vent must be heated above the dew point of the combustion products. This prevents water from forming in the flue pipe. Vent sections must be installed with the male ends of the inner liner down to allow any condensation that forms to return. This is important since the burning of 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas produces approximately 12 gallons of water. For the same reason, horizontal flue pipes should have an upward pitch of at least 1-inch per running foot.
Vent pipes should be equipped with draft diverters. A diverter is
a type of inverted cone through which the flue gases must pass on their way to discharge. It allows air from the heated room to be drawn into the flue pipe joining the combustion-gases. This action prevents excessive downdrafts or updrafts that are apt to extinguish the pilot light or possibly the main burner.
In areas where oil is the principal fuel, oil-fired space heaters are used for many space heating requirements. Oil-fired space heaters are very simple in construction. They consist of a burner, a combustion chamber and outer casing, a fuel tank, and fuel control valve. An air space is provided between the combustion chamber and the outer casing. Air enters through grilles in the bottom of the heater, is heated, and passes out through grilles in the top of the unit. Some oil-burning heaters are equipped with a blower and electric motor to force the heated air out into the room. They turn at slow speed and may be either direct drive or belt driven.
Oil-fired space heaters have atmospheric vaporizing-type burners. The burners require a light grade of fuel oil that vaporizes readily at low temperatures and leaves only small amounts of carbon and ash. Number 1 fuel oil is generally used. The two types of burners that will be discussed are the natural draft pot and the perforated sleeve.
NATURAL DRAFT POT DISTILLATE BURNERS are widely used for space heaters, room heaters, and water heaters. A cutaway view of a natural draft pot type of burner is shown in figure 4-7. In operation, the distillate (oil) is fed at the bottom of the burner, either at the center or on the sides, and is
Figure 4-7. - Cutaway view of a natural draft pot type of burner.Continue Reading