Pallets and pallet nets are procured from the Air Force. The 463-L pallet is the standard system for the movement of concentrated cargo used by the Air Force. Military airlift aircraft are equipped with a dual-rail system consisting of rows of rollers, which allow 463-L pallets to move easily into and out of the aircraft. The 463-L pallet is made of corrosion-resistant aluminum and has a soft wood core. The pallet has an outside dimension of 108 inches by 88 inches and is 2 1/4 inches thick. The cargo area space is 104 inches by 84 inches, which is enough space to allow 2 inches around the 463-L pallets to attach straps, nets, or other restraint devices. A 463-L pallet weighs 290 pounds empty and has a maximum load capacity of 10,000 pounds. However, to prolong pallet life do not exceed a pallet load of 7,500 pounds.
Pallet nets can provide adequate restraint for 10,000 pounds of cargo when properly attached to the 463-L pallet. A net set contains two side nets and one top net. The side nets are green, and the top net is yellow. The side nets attach to the pallet rings, and the top nets attach by hooks to the side nets. These nets have multiple adjustment points and may be tightened to fit snugly on most any load. A complete set of 463-L nets (three nets) weighs 65 pounds. Other cargo restraints are chains and chain tiedown devices. These are used for large items, such as Conex boxes, Seabee shelters, and reefer units. Five thousand-pound tiedown straps (fig. 4-14) are used to secure equipment attachments and provide individual item restraints. Additionally, the tiedown straps provide supplemental restraint to the 463-L pallet nets.
Cargo is palletized from the heaviest to the lightest. Large and heavy objects are distributed evenly from the center of the pallet outward to prevent the pallet from becoming heavy on one end. This distribution also helps to maintain the C/B at or near the center. Lighter or smaller items are positioned on top or along the side of the heavier cargo. Containers marked "THIS SIDE UP" are placed upright, and cargo with special labels are faced outward whenever possible. Pallets should be constructed in a square or pyramid shape whenever possible (fig. 4-15). This makes the load stable, easy to handle, and easier to secure on the pallet.
Each 463-L pallet requires dunnage under the pallet when not on board the aircraft. The dunnage consists of three pieces of 4-inch by 4-inch by 90-inch timbers. The dunnage is placed in the center and close to the outside edges of the pallet. This prevents the pallets from warping and enhances forklift operations. Each aircraft has restrictions as to the dimensional size and shape particular to that specific aircraft. Aisleways must be built on pallet position three or four in a C-130 aircraft. Check the particular requirements of the aircraft for which you are preparing a load.
The marking of the C/B is not necessary on individual 463-L pallets. When 463-L pallet loads are built correctly, the C/B will be at or near the center. The pallets are weighed by using portable scales. The weight of the dunnage must be weighed with the pallet. The scaled weight of the pallet is recorded on the manifest
Figure 4-14. - 5,000-pound tiedown strap.
Figure 4-15. - 463-L pallet cargo placement.Continue Reading